Articles relating to Heavitree and its past.
These may be connected with research that has been undertaken, subjects that have been covered at our quarterly meetings, or, material that has been gleaned from other sources.
- Heavitree - An Overview
- The Origin Of 'Heavitree'
- Fore Street Heavitree - A Roman Road?
- Heavitree And The Domesday Book
- Heavitree Parish Boundary
- The History Of The Ludwell Valley
- Heavitree Stone And Heavitree Quarries
- Heavitree As A Place Of Execution
- Higher Cemetery
- Almshouses Of Heavitree
- Pubs Of Heavitree
- The Heavitree Brewery
- Heavitree Toll Houses
- Growth And Development In The Nineteenth Century
- The Gordon Lamp
- Heavitree And The Trams
- Heavitree Urban District Council
- Heavitree Pleasure Ground
- The Widening Of North Street
- The Annexation Of Heavitree
- Retailing In Heavitree
- Churches Of Heavitree
- Education In Heavitree
- Heavitree Bridge
- Heavitree United Football Club
- Wyvern Barracks
- Heavitree In The Second World War
- Heavitree Social Centre
- Famous Heavitree Residents
- Neighbourhood Watch 1831 Style
- Disorderly Houses In Heavitree
- Heavitree Postboxes
- Memories Of Heavitree
- Snippets From The Local Press
- Heavitree Around the World
Heavitree - An Overview
For many centuries Heavitree's parish boundaries swept right around from Countess Wear to Cowley, although by 1800 its population, despite its size, was less than 900.
By the time the Heavitree Urban District Council (HUDC) was set up at the end of the 19th century, Wonford, Polsloe, Whipton and Stoke Hill were still within that boundary. Nowadays Heavitree is an identified ward for local election purposes - an area loosely centred on the Fore Street shops.
It is possible that Fore Street, Heavitree is on the route of a Roman road into Exeter, but to date this is unproven. What is known is that Fore Street was on the main Exeter to London road by the 1500s and this, together with the location of the parish church, led to Wonford's local pre-eminence being gradually usurped by the hamlet of Heavitree.
It is known that before William the Conqueror arrived on the scene Heavitree manor was part of the Wonford royal estate. Wonford was the name given to an ancient 'hundred' but unlike many other hundreds it didn't have a minster church. The role seems to have been taken by an early Christian place of worship on a prominent position on the edge of the estate at Heavitree.
The Parish Church, Heavitree in 2013
For centuries, Heavitree provided the inhabitants of Exeter with food, building materials, and, as the city grew in importance, labour. However, the relationship between the city of Exeter and the village of Heavitree wasn't always amicable. Exeter, because of its importance, has been besieged on many occasions since 1066. The besieging armies would have camped in Heavitree and demanded that the local farmers provided them with food while stopping trade with the city's inhabitants.
Although there is no recorded evidence, it is likely that this forced collaboration would have led to recriminations when hostilities ceased. This may have been the reason why people living within the city walls called those living in St Sidwell's "Grecians", or untrustworthy, and Heavitree was nominated as the place for executions.
Despite this friction Heavitree became a honey-pot for wealthy Exeter merchants and people returning to England after making their fortunes with the East India Company. One of the main reasons for the building of Baring Crescent, Salutary Mount, Mont-le-Grand and Regents Park during the first half of the 19th century was the good health record of the parish. Whilst scores of people died from cholera in Exeter, Heavitree residents escaped almost unscathed.
This expansion escalated as Exeter's prosperity increased. By the middle of the 19th century the city fathers were keen to include Heavitree in the city's boundaries, but it wasn't until 1913 that annexation finally took place and ended a thousand years of independence.Scroll to top of page
The Origin Of 'Heavitree'
Most place names are either personal, i.e. named after a person, or topographical, i.e. named after a local feature in the landscape.
These derivations are not always apparent in modern English place-names as most are rooted in ancient languages such Celtic, Latin, Old English or Norman French.
Another barrier to tracing the derivation of an English place-name is that it will undoubtedly have changed over the years. The following are just a few examples of Heavitree found in old texts and documents:
- 1086 Hevetrowa (Domesday Book)
- 1130 Hefatriwe
- 1179 Eveltrea
- 1270 Hevedtre
- 1345 Hevtre
One theory as to the origin of the name Heavitree is that it was derived from it being the common place of execution for malefactors, signifying the heavy or sorrowful tree. Another possibility is that it refers to the ‘head tree’, and yet another suggestion is that it is made up of ave or avon (water), and tree the British word for town or settlement.
Most place-name experts now agree however that it probably derives from the personal name Hefa and the Old English word treow meaning a tree, post or beam. Heavitree is included in a group of 38 settlements which have similar characteristics, namely adjacent to a boundary of an estate and associated with a meeting-place. A tree is a natural marker for both purposes.Scroll to top of page
Fore Street Heavitree - A Roman Road?
There has been much speculation and debate over the possibility of Fore Street Heavitree having a Roman origin but it may never be proven. Even if it began its life as a solidly-built Roman military road, nineteen centuries of continuous use, and its slope, would have removed all physical evidence. However, it is a worthwhile exercise to investigate the possibility by association with the proven routes and the intelligent interpretation of the topography where gaps exist.
Roman roads were constructed by the army, for the army. When the Second Augustan Legion built their fortress at Exeter in the 50s A.D., roads leading to it from the rest of Roman Britain, and in particular the contemporary Legionary fortress at Lincoln at the other end of the Fosse Way, will have been laid out in predictable ways, with forts placed at intervals equivalent to a day's march. The Antonine Itinerary of the third century A.D. listed the mileage between important places such as posting stations and major towns. Included on the south coast route between Dorchester and Exeter, for example, is Moridunum, which may mean defensible place by the sea, and, although no hard evidence for a fort has yet been found, it is likely to have been close to present day Seaton. To the west of Exeter there is Nemetostatio and may be the fort known as North Tawton. Further west we have Tamaris, yet to be found, but must be a fort guarding the crossing of the river Tamar. It took until 1998 to find the Roman fort near Honiton on the Fosse way; everyone knew it was there somewhere.
With the aid of an Urban Database, which precisely locates and superimposes all known erotological evidence onto modern topographical maps, it is now much easier to see what was going on at any given period. The gates and many of the roads leading from the original Legionary fortress are known from excavations. An aerial photograph showing the very straight line of Topsham Road would have continued through Exeter's South Gate into the fort and out of the North Gate. Interestingly, the suspected route from the North Gate was never found during excavations in the area of the Iron Bridge. However, evidence has been found for the road turning north and running up what is now Paul Street. An East Gate, near St Stephen's Church in the High Street, would have run in a straight line to join what is now Sidwell Street. The apparent wobble in the line of this road, from the later City Gate to Sidwell Street is thought to be the result of recutting City defences during the Civil War. The road from the West Gate would have run to the Exe Bridge and beyond.
Thus far none of this helps the cause of Fore Street Heavitree except that during recent excavations in Princesshay, Roman road metalling was unexpectedly found running diagonally, due East from the Fort. This is still not quite in line with Fore Street Heavitree but does allow us to break the predictable 'dead-straight' grid mould.
Of the two Roman roads running to Exeter from the east - the Honiton-Exeter route seen as an extension of the Fosse Way, and the south coast road from Dorchester - the best alignment for Fore Street Heavitree comes from the latter. The south coast route arrives at Clyst St Mary and the bridging of the Clyst, then follows a straight line section of the Topsham parish boundary (always a good indicator of pre-Norman land division) to Sandy Gate, then on to Quarry Lane and East Wonford Hill. The building of the railway, outer bypass and M5 motorway now make this route less obvious.
The Fosse Way from Honiton is known with certainty as far as the Rockbeare Straight. Margary describes a subsequently bendy route from Clyst Honiton, closely following the low ground of the old A30, to join the South Coast road at Heavitree Bridge at the bottom of East Wonford Hill (Margary, 108). However, if one takes a look at a modern map we see another potential route into Exeter over a ridge via Blackhorse Lane to Gipsy Hill and then Hollow Lane. From this point the line can be imagined running to join the Pinhoe Road close to Polsloe Bridge, then to Blackboy Road, Sidwell Street and Exeter's East Gate. Unfortunately no Roman road was discovered during the building of the M5 motorway.
There seems to be little doubt that Fore Street Heavitree had its origins as a Roman road and could have led to both the East Gate and the South Gate of Exeter, forking at Livery Dole, before running via both Magdalen Road and via Heavitree Road + Paris Street.
Margary, RD, 1955 - Roman Roads in Britain Vol. 1, London
Heavitree And The Domesday Book
The Domesday Book is not consistent in the manner of its recording; Heavitree's entry is very short on detail. It mentions only two carucates of land and two ploughs: one for Roger, who holds the manor, and one for the villain - the two serfs were probably ploughmen. That makes for a population of just four families in 1086: Roger's, the villain's and the two serfs' - surely there must have been more.
A carucate, like the hide elsewhere in the country, is a measure of cultivated land which a plough team could work in a year, and could be used to calculate tax. For most of the country, a carucate, or hide, would have been reckoned on 120 acres but in the southwestern counties (heavier soils?) it is more often reckoned at only 40 or 48 acres (Finn, 25).
How much bigger than its likely 96 acres of arable was the manor at this time? What about woodland (crucial for fuel and the grazing of pigs), orchards, pasture, sheep and cattle? How did this tiny manor, and its later church of St Michael, in the two centuries following Domesday Book, become the centre of such a large parish, stretching from Cowley Bridge in the north to the Clyst at Bishops Clyst in the south, including a total of ten churches and chapels (Orme, 121)?
A map showing the extent of Heavitree parish
at the end of the 13th century (Orme, 1991)
As for the plough and its oxen team, it must be remembered that ploughing had been developed over thousands of years before 1086. The plough itself was a valuable and effective tool, with all the components we see on a modern plough: a coulter to cut the turf, an iron 'share' to break the ground, and a mouldboard for turning the furrow. Ploughshares were even sought as payment for rents (Finn, 57). The oxen (castrated bulls), were small beasts about the size of the Dexter breed, and the eight would constitute two teams of four.
Finn, RW, 1973 - Domesday Book; a Guide, London;
Orme, NI, 1991 - The Medieval Chapels of Heavitree, Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society No 49, 121-129
Heavitree Parish Boundary
For at least 1000 years prior to 1913, when it was annexed by Exeter, Heavitree parish, which included Polsloe, Stoke Hill, Whipton, Broadfields and Wonford, looked after its own affairs. It has been suggested that the site of its parish church, St Michael and All Angels, was one of the earliest Christian sites in Devon.
The administrative area known as a parish appears in King Alfred's laws and had both spiritual and secular functions. As land-owners and residents had to pay a tithe or tax to their parish church it was essential that the vicar and church officials knew the precise extent of their parish. The parish gradually became the accepted local government unit below the county and was given responsibility for administering the poor law acts, highway maintenance and enforcing the law.
The need to define and defend individual and group territorial boundaries seems to be a basic human instinct that is also found in many animals. The practice of marking land boundaries with physical objects such as wooden posts or stones has lasted for at least 3000 years (see Deuteronomy 19:14) and Tudor boundary stones marking Heavitree's parish boundaries can still be seen.
A map from the 1930s showing Heavitree parish boundary
Boundary stones or markers rarely defined every bend and kink in parish boundaries and as accurate maps only became available in the late 19th century parish councils used a technique to define and identify boundaries which dated back to ancient Greece and the Romans. It went under the name of 'beating the bounds'.
Throughout the country vicars and parish officials led a group of their parishioners, including in many places young boys, around their parish boundary. Each boundary stone or significant bend in the boundary was struck with a willow wand or a rock. In many parishes a boy was raised by the ankles and his head was bounced on the stone or the ground. The reasoning was that making young boys witness and take part in in the ceremony would ensure the survival of the group memory and they would make convincing witnesses if the boundary dispute was ever brought to court.
Perambulating Heavitree's twenty mile boundary took most of a day and regular stops for refreshment were required. On returning to the church an ale-feast was often held. Many parishioners used the occasion as an excuse to get drunk and misbehave. It is perhaps no coincidence that the word 'bounder' means a cad or person of objectionable manners.
Heavitree parish boundary overlain on a modern OS map
The beating of the bounds traditionally took place on Rogation Sunday, but in an attempt to avoid the fights that often broke out when groups of high-spirited, semi-intoxicated youths from neighbouring parishes met, some churches switched the ceremony to their church's dedication day.
Some of the stones which marked the boundary of Heavitree parish have been in existence for many centuries, but in 1897 the Heavitree Urban District Council celebrated Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee by erecting some additional stones and reviving the beating the bounds ceremony which had lapsed over the years. The ceremony again lapsed after the 1913 annexation, but was revived for a second time in 1975 by a group of local enthusiasts. Since then the ceremony has taken place every three years or so.
A booklet published in 2007 by the HLHS exists containing a record of Heavitree's surviving parish and the UDC boundary stones + a description of how to follow as closely as possible the 1897 boundary.
Anyone wishing to attempt the walk will find a good street map is useful. Walkers are warned that bridle paths are often very muddy in winter so stout shoes are advisable; flooding is also possible in low-lying areas after prolonged heavy rain. The Countryside Code should be adhered to at all times. The walk is of moderate difficulty with one long climb in the Stoke Hill area.Scroll to top of page
The History Of The Ludwell Valley
Ludwell Valley is a place people have been drawn to since the Neolithic period. It has been continually used and occupied for 6,000 or 7,000 years. There is nowhere else in Devon that can say this.
People used flint and other stones to make tools e.g. blades and scrapers. From the Iron Age onwards, the clay was used for pottery, and the land for agriculture. A lot of early pottery found on sites elsewhere in Devon has been shown to have been made from clay from Ludwell Valley. There is no evidence of kilns in the Valley, which suggests that the clay may have been dug up, then made into pottery elsewhere.
An aerial view of the Ludwell Valley
There are long gaps in the historical record, the next detailed glimpse we get into the history of the Valley being in the 1840s. However, there have been a number of finds, a selection of which can be seen in the RAMM ‘Making History’ section:
- Several enclosures and barrows, likely to date back to the Bronze Age;
- A medieval field boundary buried on the northern edge of the Valley;
- The Topsham/Heavitree parish boundary going back to at least the tenth century;
- A large number of bones unearthed in the 1960s in a field below Pynes Hill, which may be remains of those who died in the Prayer Book Rebellion battle of Clyst Heath on the 4th and 5th August 1549;
- Seventeenth century pottery fragments: Westerwald pottery, which came from Germany and was owned by high status individuals; and courseware, made locally, possibly from Ludwell Valley clay, and used by lower status people.
Why Is It Called Ludwell?
“Ludwell” comes from two Old English words: “hlude", loud, with "hlaw", a hill; and hence "the loud (or rapid) river by the hill”?
W.G. Hoskins suggested the name means “loud spring”. There is a spring, now under the kitchen floor of Ludwell House. Maybe there was an old watercourse, fed by the spring, which Ludwell Lane now follows, flowing down to join the Northbrook?
“Hlaw” translates not only as hill but also mound, especially a barrow. Was there a prehistoric burial mound, the haunt of restless unquiet spirits of the ancestors?
How The Northbrook Gave Wonford Its Name
The old name for the Northbrook, recorded in a Saxon charter of 937 AD, was Wynford. This probably derives from the Celtic “gwyn ffrwd”, meaning the white, fair, or holy stream.
“Wynford” changed over time to “Wonford” and this became the name of the manor of Wonford, which belonged to the Saxon kings, and thence of the Hundred.
Heavitree, built on the Exeter to London road, gradually became more important. Wonford had ceased to be a royal manor by the 12th century; Heavitree is the name the parish has been known by ever since. We can see from maps that almost all Ludwell was originally within Heavitree Parish, with only a tiny bit in the Topsham Parish.
The footpath running up from Ludwell Lane by the side of the Fernleigh Nurseries rejoins Ludwell Lane and aligns precisely on Heavitree Parish Church. Did it originally run straight to the church, and the modern alignment is to avoid the steep slopes?
The northern end of Ludwell Lane disappears under Rydon Lane. This is where one of the two main local Iron Age encampments was! Could Ludwell Lane have followed a route used by our Iron Age ancestors over 2,000 years ago to travel between one of their main settlements and the sacred site marked by the ancient yew tree which may have given its name to Heavitree?
The 1844 Tithe Map
In the early 1840s, a tithe map was drawn up for each parish. The purpose was to assess who owed tax and how much. Most of the tax was due to the vicar or parson, replacing the old system whereby farmers and smallholders had to give one tenth (a tithe) of their produce to the vicar every year. The map records the name of every field, its size, whether it was arable or pasture, who owned it and who farmed it.
An aerial view of the Ludwell Valley showing the 1844 field names
Ludwell Valley was within Heavitree parish. The vicar was owed £450 a year; other lessees another £580. It would take a craftsman about 8 years to earn £450 in the 1840s!
Fields were fairly small, typically 4 or 5 acres. Unlike today, most were used for arable crops, with lots of fruit. Most landowners were men holding a fairly small number of fields, although a few owned larger holdings, up to 50 fields and over 200 acres. Fields were not necessarily grouped together into blocks according to ownership – it was more common to own ‘one here, and one there’.
Rev. William Arundell
The Rev. William Arundell was born in 1798 in Pinhoe. He was 46 when the Tithe Map was drawn up, and owned nine fields in the Valley, plus another sixteen elsewhere in the parish. By the time of the 1861 census, if not before, he was the rector of Cheriton Fitzpaine, which is about 5 miles north of Crediton. He was then 63, his wife, Sarah, only 37. Sarah in fact was his second wife, whom he married in 1847. They had at least two children, sons aged 11 and 12, although they were not living at home (maybe away at boarding school?). The family were pretty well off, having no less than seven live-in servants: a footman, a groom, garden boy, cook, kitchen maid and two housemaids. By 1871, times must have become a little harder and they had only four servants. The two boys had both gone up to Oxford University. Two years later, William died, aged 75, leaving nearly £12,000 (equivalent to over £600,000 today).
Samuel Melhuish, the Rev. Arundell’s tenant farmer, lived in the Abbots and Pyne area of South Wonford. He was born in 1781 in Cheriton (thus the connection to his landlord?), so was over 60 at the time the tithe maps were drawn up. His wife was called Ann, and at the time of the 1841 census, there were three teenagers living with them, a girl of 18 and two boys, aged 14 and 17, both agricultural labourers. By 1851, aged 70, he was farming and employing two labourers, William Clement and Arthur Barnicoot, both of whom lived with the family. His 9 year old grandson Robert was also living with them as was a female house servant called Ruth Eveleigh. By 1861, things had changed again. Samuel was widowed, but still head of the household, still farming at the age of 79, employing three men and a boy. Living with him was his 47 year old son Robert, also a farmer, Robert’s wife Martha, Samuel’s grandson and three grand-daughters, the younger two of whom, aged 10 and 14, were at school. This arrangement continued until 1871, although by then the family included Samuel’s one year old great grandson, William, and a 16 year old agricultural labourer called William Philips. Samuel died later that year at the very good age of 89. The family lived at Pynes Farm.
Pynes Hill Farm
The farm was on the opposite side of Ludwell Lane to the Fernleigh Nurseries in the corner of what is now the Cherry Orchard. It had been there since at least the 1890s, and probably a lot longer, but was gone by the 1960s, and possibly by the 1940s; there are still signs if you look carefully enough. The gateposts of the entrance to the Cherry Orchard from Ludwell Lane are solid stone affairs, very different to the more modern gateposts used elsewhere in the park by the Council. They are in fact the gateposts of the old farm entrance. Near the cattle’s drinking trough you can find the odd brick or fragment of floor, all that is left of that farm.
A map showing the location of Pynes Hill Farm
Francis Hurford of Topsham leased part of this farm to Mark White of Hallhayes Farm, Wellington, Somerset in 1932. The lease had strict conditions: not to break up any permanent pasture; to preserve all the trees in the Cherry Orchard; maintain the hedges in good condition; keep at least 40 apple trees and currant bushes in the garden; manage the farm “according to the best rules of husbandry practiced in the neighbourhood”; prevent, as far as possible, any trespass onto the land; and purchase the farm’s milk round after a year.
The Snow Family
The Snow family were connected with the Ludwell Valley in the early 20th century. Edgar and Hilda Snow were landlords of the old Country House Inn on Topsham Road (and their family landlords of two other Heavitree Brewery pubs: The Windsor Castle and the London & South Western Tavern). They did well there, and in 1920 bought Ridgeway field, and then Ludwell Gardens in 1928. This was productive arable land – they grew fruits and vegetables, and it was also good for bulb growing. They developed a commercial business – sending daffodils and other flowers to Covent Garden market in London, with, it is said, flowers even being exported to Holland! Tulips to Amsterdam! The family only sold these fields to the Council in 2019.
Edward Snow and his family, outside the Country House Inn, Topsham Road
(image courtesy of Mrs P & Dr G Richardson)
Edward Snow and his family, with cut flowers grown in the Ludwell Valley
(image courtesy of Mrs P & Dr G Richardson)
The Council And Ludwell
In the 1920s, the council started buying up land around Exeter, first to re-house people from the old West Quarter and then after the war, to replace houses destroyed by enemy bombing. Most of the land is now the Rifford Road and the Burnthouse Lane estates. Ludwell Valley was spared, presumably because the land was too steep, and Wonford Playing Fields because the land had been used as a tip, and then for dumping some of the rubble from the wartime bomb damage.
Once the Council took over ownership of fields in the park, they installed tenant farmers. The last tenant was Bernard “Tiger” Hooper. He was said to be a strong-willed man. He grazed his cattle on the park all year round, which made it a muddy and smelly experience for walkers, although some field edges were fenced off for them. He had a piggery where the new cherry orchard has been planted; full of old railway carriages, gates and vicious dogs! When Tiger died in 1998, the Council decided to take back the management of the land in order to have better control.
In 1983, the Council took the far-sighted decision to set up Valley Parks in Exeter, so Ludwell is protected. In May 2019, the management of the Valley Park was transferred from the City Council over to Devon Wildlife Trust. Ludwell Life and Exeter City Council are working together to create a new community orchard. This will turn what is currently a featureless field, low in habitat value, into a place for sitting and for picnics, provide a harvest for local people of fruit (the trees planted are all old Devon varieties), and also enriched habitat for wildlife. There will be a flat space to hold small community events too.
There is an old cherry orchard in the park, dating back to 1840, which contains some trees that are well over a hundred years old. These are being replaced, and a new cherry orchard was planted and is also being added to every year. The old hedges in the Valley also contain trees that are hundreds of years old, including pollarded Elms. These are being protected, and hedges that were removed in the 1920s are being reinstated. Wildflower meadows are being planted and hopefully this will continue. Ash tree die-back will be a devastating problem for Ludwell, as well as for the rest of the country, in the future. Vandalism and pollution are problems, but despite this, the Panny is still home to hundreds of creatures: kingfishers, dippers, egrets, ravens, buzzards, sparrowhawks, and maybe an otter. One of the objectives is to get people using the Ludwell Valley Park more – it is such a wonderful green space and we could all benefit from spending some more time there.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Stone And Heavitree Quarries
During the Permo-Triassic period, around 280 million years ago, the climate in Devon was like that of the present-day Sahara. Seasonal flash floods swept large quantities of sediment into the valleys and the plains fringing the deserts. As the stones within never had the chance to wear down, they remained angular and sharp. It is this mixture of stones and sediment, known as breccia, present in the Heavitree area, that was quarried and used for building in the Exeter area, where it was called Heavitree Stone.
A map showing the location of quarries in the Heavitree / Wonford area
Although Heavitree Stone had been in use for a long time, the first quarries opened at Heavitree, Wonford, Whipton and Exminster, around 1340, and continued operating until the mid-19th century. The first recorded use of Heavitree Stone was in Exeter’s Underground Passages in 1349. Cathedral records indicate a sudden increase of stone being brought in from Whipton - no less than 650 loads were conveyed in 1349-50. For some reason, the Cathedral was required to repair the City wall by the East Gate. It seems that this may have been because the Cathedral had decided to simplify its water supply (previously taken from St Sidwells well and carried around the city by conduit to Cathedral Close) by cutting through the East Gate, hence the repairs and material required.
The Underground Passages
Post-1350 and through the 1400s, there was a great flowering of masonry skills after the devastation of the Black Death, and a real pride in workmanship and in re-building of the city. The use of Heavitree Stone ashlar (large, square-cut blocks of stone) was connected with a big increase in the quality of building and was regarded as a real showpiece.
Heavitree Stone's heyday was in the 15th and 16th centuries. Churches dating from the period indicate that it was the preferred choice in Exeter. St Mary Steps is built from grand Heavitree Stone ashlar, as is St Stephen's, and the tower of St Martin's; Heavitree's St Clare's Chapel is a lovely example. Sadly, St Michael's Church is made from limestone, not Heavitree Stone, but perhaps it used to be. When it was rebuilt by the Victorians, part of the old church probably went to form the boundary wall between the two graveyards, which contains a whole mix of interesting materials: Heavitree Stone, red sandstone, volcanic blocks and medieval floor tiles.
A wall at Heavitree Parish Church
Another place in Exeter where we can see Heavitree Stone from the Middle Ages is in the old city walls. Although in places the Heavitree Stone is actually beneath the Roman volcanic stone, this does not mean that it is older, but is actually because the older wall is on top of the newer part; the ground would've been much higher on both sides, so when this was levelled, would've been underpinned with Heavitree Stone.
A section of the City wall
Moving away from Exeter there are some wonderful examples of the use of Heavitree Stone, in Alphington, Kenn, Kenton and Exminster churches, but in general its use peters out in favour of more local sources within a few miles.
Although Heavitree Stone is a high-quality material, it is prone to weathering. For this reason, there was something of a move away from its use from the 17th century onwards, but there are later examples, such as Wynards Almshouses and Chapel on Magdalen Street.
The chapel of Wynards Almshouses
Heavitree stone was used so ubiquitously through the City that its remnant walls act as a kind of red skeleton showing the shape of our City from 500-600 years ago. Today there are many lesser examples that can be still be seen in the form of low, basal courses that would have been beneath traditional cob or wooden structures.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree As A Place Of Execution
Until 1531, those found guilty of crimes within the County of Devon, were put to death at the Livery Dole crossroads. In 1531, the place of execution was moved to the Sidmouth Road / Honiton Road junction at Ringwell. The situation remained unchanged until the opening of the Devon County Gaol in Exeter in 1795 when all executions were moved there. [For clarity, before 1795, if the crime had been committed within the City of Exeter both trial and execution would take place within the city; if the crime had been committed outside of the city the trial would take place in the city but the execution outside the city at Heavitree.]
Executions were public affairs, and were frequently witnessed by hundreds, sometimes thousands, of interested on-lookers of all ages, many employers allowing their workers to have a day's holiday. The prisoners were accompanied on their journey from Exeter Castle to Ringwell by huge crowds, many of whom paused for refreshment at the Heavitree inns. The local printers published broadsheets describing the characters of the people about to be executed setting out full details of their crimes.
A wooden engraving of a typical public execution
Those executed were rarely allowed in graveyards. Following execution, most bodies would have been displayed for a time as a warning, before being burnt, buried close to the gallows or sent for anatomical research. Before the 1832 Anatomy Act, such bodies were the only ones available for research by surgeons, etc, and grave-robbing was common. However, as demand began to outstrip supply, the Act made available any bodies that were unclaimed after death. This proved a viable means of disposal for those who died in hospital, prison or the workhouse.
The most famous executions to take place at Heavitree were of the 'Devon Witches' from Bideford, tried at Exeter Castle in 1682 and 1685. Much of the evidence against them would appear to have been hearsay, seeming extremely petty by today's standards given the outcome. There is a plaque by the castle gatehouse commemorating the women, put up and maintained by an American relative of Alice Molland, the last of the witches to be condemned to execution.Scroll to top of page
In the nineteenth century, as the population of Exeter grew in number, there was a corresponding increase in the number of burials required, especially during the frequent cholera epidemics. This placed a huge strain on burial space, and the Lower Cemetery, off Bartholomew Street, failed to provide a long-term solution.
Land covering an area of 6 acres outside the city boundary at Heavitree was acquired by the Exeter Improvement Commissioners; 4.5 acres was reserved for Church of England burials, the remaining 1.5 acres for Dissenters or Non-Conformists (i.e. those who don’t follow Church of England principles) **. On 26th March 1866 the Higher Cemetery was opened, dedicated by the Reverend James Chapman, former Bishop of Colombo. The first recorded burial was that of Edward Leach Herbert on 7th June 1866.
The Lodge, designed by a Mr Luscombe and the two chapels **, one for the Church of England, the other for Dissenters, both built of Heavitree stone, and designed by Edward Ashworth, were built in 1865. Ashworth had moved to Exeter in 1846 and built or restored many Devon churches. He is buried in the cemetery, as is the proprietor of Robert Veitch and Son, the firm that carried out the landscaping works.
A small area, formerly called St Leonards Churchyard, and lying to the north of the lodge was added to the main cemetery in 1877. Although not added until 11 years after the main cemetery opened, it is the oldest piece of land used for burials now within the cemetery boundary. The shape of a circular coach-drive in this section, although now grassed over, is still visible and is delineated by the headstone positions. Remains exhumed from the ruined St Edmund’s Church are buried in this section.
The entrance to Higher Cemetery in 2017,
showing the Dissenters' Chapel (near) and the Church of England Chapel (far)
The cemetery, extended at least three times over the years, now occupies 45 acres, contains the remains of over 70,000 people, has over 12,000 memorials and is a peaceful wildlife haven. There is a section containing the bodies of those who died in World War I, another for World War II, and even a section for infant burials that was opened in 2007. Other memorials of great poignancy are those commemorating 83 victims of the 1942 Baedeker raids, an imposing granite cross to the 189 who perished in the 1887 Theatre Royal fire, and the grave of stone-carver Harry Hems. In addition, the cemetery holds the remains of those originally interred at several Exeter churches that have long vanished.
The Friends of Higher Cemetery was established in 2011 to help promote the cemetery and to complement the services of Exeter City Council who operate the cemetery.
** Separate chapels and burial areas for Church of England and for Dissenters would have been the norm of the day. Today this would be regarded as a frivolous waste of time and money, but not then as the Church of England wouldn’t be tainted by those it regarded with contempt for not adhering to its beliefs. The practice has long been abandoned and all denominations now use the same burial areas and chapel.
Exeter City Council, 2002 – Higher Cemetery - history and lives;
Friends of Higher Cemetery, 2011 – Higher Cemetery time-line
Almshouses of Heavitree
Livery Dole Almshouses
The first documentary evidence of the name Livery Dole appears in a deed dated 1279. For centuries it was the scene of executions for persons from the County of Devon. In addition to executions by hanging, people found guilty of witchcraft, heresy and other ‘heinous’ crimes, were burnt at the stake.
This was the fate that befell Thomas Benet who was burnt at the stake on 10th January 1531, for denying the supremacy of the Pope. This was the last recorded execution at Livery Dole; hereafter they were moved to Ringwell.
Sir Thomas Denys, Sheriff of Devon, subsequently regretted allowing Benet’s execution to take place and as an act of contrition left instructions in his will for 12 almshouses to be built on the site. These were completed in 1594, rebuilt in 1851 and extended in the 1970s.
The sixteenth century almshouses at Livery Dole alongside St Clare's Chapel in 1850
Although it has often been claimed that the chapel at Livery Dole is medieval in date and was dedicated to St Clarus, this is now known to be false; it was in fact built with the almshouses adjacent to it in 1592.
The nineteenth century Livery Dole Almshouses
The original almshouses were granted to the parish by Richard Ducke in 1603. They were rebuilt on the same site in the 1850s. Action by Exeter Civic Society saved them from Council demolition in the 1970s.
Duckes Almshouses in 2013
In front of the almshouses is a horse trough presented to the parish in 1876 in memory of Dr. Erasmus M Miles, M.D.
The horse trough outside Duckes Almshouses in 2013
The cottages were built by John Sampson to the rear of what is now 120 Fore Street. He rented out two other properties that he owned - numbers 51 and 52 Regent Square - to pay for the upkeep of these. They were demolished in the 1960s.
|Maps showing Manor Cottages off Fore Street||Frontage|
|Early 1950s||Early 1960s||Early 1970s||2016|
Pubs of Heavitree
The Horse And Groom Hotel
Originally known as the Horse and Jockey, this pub has been in existence since at least 1740. Until schools were built later in the nineteenth century, the building served as a public function room, along with its neighbour the Ship Inn. Both establishments were used for refreshments after pauper funerals, an allowance of 3/- per burial being paid until the 1820s.
The Horse and Jockey was bought in 1891 by the Heavitree Brewery that had been brewing close to the rear of the premises since at least 1842. Part of the present pub building was occupied by Heavitree Fire Station until the 1930s, and then by a greengrocers.
For a few years in the early twenty-first century the pub adopted the name The Heavitree, before reverting back to the more popular Horse and Groom.
The Ship Inn
The Ship Inn has been in existence since at least 1740. Along with its neighbour, the Horse and Jockey, the building served as a public function room until schools were built later in the nineteenth century. Both establishments were used for refreshments after pauper funerals, an allowance of 3/- per burial being paid until the 1820s.
|The Ship and Pelican in 2013|
The Ship was used for the annual distribution of cloth to the poor until the 1820s; coroners' inquests took place there, and on one occasion in 1836 a prisoner was kept locked up overnight. The parish dinner for the poor to celebrate the coronation of King George IV was held there in 1821.
It was renamed the Ship and Pelican in the 1980s.
The Royal Oak
The original Royal Oak was originally on the corner of North Street and Fore Street (see map of Heavitree Towne 1816); it moved to its current location in the 1820s. It is one of the few buildings in Exeter to retain a thatched roof, but needed to be rebuilt following bomb damage in the Second World War.
The Windsor Castle
The Windsor Castle was originally called the Windsor Inn, and was owned by William Crowson, owner of the nearby Windsor Brewery which was founded in about 1860. William died in 1885, after which the Brewery was run by his widow and her son. Heavitree Brewery bought the Windsor Brewery in 1899, and continued brewing there until 1902, selling the premises in 1907. The brewery buildings remained until 1983 when they were demolished. The Windsor Castle continued to trade but finally closed in 2018.
Cat And Fiddle
Numbers 32-38 East Wonford Hill are Grade 2 listed 18th Century Cottages. Number 38 used to have the name plate 'Cat and Fiddle' – the reasons for which have been much debated in the past. Could this have been an old public house?
|32-38 East Wonford Hill in 2018|
The St Loyes Public House And Hotel
The St Loyes Public House and Hotel in Salters Road opened in 1936. It was latterly owned by the Heavitree Brewery. In 2009 the Brewery applied to convert the property into residential flats. The work was completed in 2011 in a £500,000+ contract. The building retains period features such as the wonderful Art Deco windows, and has some noteworthy sections of Heavitree Stone brickwork on either side.
The Heavitree Brewery
Brewing of ale in Heavitree by local farmers, land-owners and the church had almost certainly been carried out for many centuries before commercial brewing was recorded. Malting then took place at the Horse & Jockey Inn, the Ship Inn, at a brewery in Church Street from 1832 to 1857, as well as at the Windsor Brewery to the rear of Homefield Place. However there is one brewery that stands out above all others in Heavitree ...
The 'Heavitree Family Brewery' was founded in 1790 by John Wolland, a Heavitree farmer, land-owner and maltster. The brewery was originally located in Sivell Place, but in the early nineteenth century it moved to Church Street near to the church, and the Sivell Place site became a cooperage.
|1889 OS map||Brewery from|
|Annual outing 1907|
Until 1890 the Heavitree Brewery purely sold the beer it produced, but this was about to change. Shares were offered in 'Heavitree Brewery Ltd' and there followed a series of purchases of both pubs and breweries, including the Royal Oak in 1890 and the Horse & Jockey in 1891, and the rival Windsor Brewery in 1899.
The company was almost brought to its knees, however, around 1920 when the manager embezzled a lot of money. He fled to Canada but was caught and sentenced to three years penal servitude and his accomplice to twelve months imprisonment. Things were saved by a supplier of the brewery whose bills were not being paid. He asked to see the books and was horrified! He was subsequently appointed to the board and set about putting everything in order.
|Horse-drawn vehicle||Motor vehicle||Retail outlet|
There was another change of tack in 1970. Huge investment was required in the brewery and bottling plant, which could not be justified. Profit would double by buying in beer for their pubs under contract as opposed to making it exclusively for them. Thus on 1st May 1970 all brewing operations ceased; for the first time the company became entirely focused on managing tenanted pubs, of which they had 135. The shift came as a huge blow to Heavitree - seventy-six people lost their jobs, the majority were Heavitree residents whose families had worked for the brewery for years.
In 1984, the Church Street site was sold and redeveloped into sheltered housing (aptly named The Maltings), and the company moved away from Heavitree completely. However, the Brewery lives on and still manages many successful pubs; the signage 'A Heavitree House' indicating that the pub is owned by the Heavitree Brewery but managed by the landlord.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Toll Houses
Turnpike Trusts were formed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to bring about an improvement in the country's road network, by bettering existing roads and constructing new ones, and placing of milestones, which became compulsory from 1766 onwards. The Exeter Turnpike Trust, one of the earliest in Devon, was formed in 1753 and remained in existence until it was disbanded in 1884. It became one of the largest in the country managing over 140 miles of road radiating from the city.
All traffic to and from the east and north had to pass through Heavitree, thus a number of toll houses and gates were installed in the parish. They were situated at:
- Marypole Head - built at the junction of Rosebarn Lane with Pennsylvania Road to deal with travellers going to and from Stoke Canon.
- Stoke Hill - erected at the foot of Rosebarn Lane in Old Tiverton Road. It used to be known as the Tiverton and Cullompton Gate.
- Withybridge (or Blackboy Gate) - stood on the south side of Blackboy Road just past the entrance to Mount Pleasant Road on the road to Cullompton.
- Heavitree Towne - built on the corner of North Street and Fore Street on the Honiton Road. It was later moved to the east of the Livery Dole almshouses.
- Heavitree Bridge - situated on the south side of the road at the east end of Heavitree Bridge.
- Livery Dole - stood at the point where present day Magdalen Road crosses Barrack Road.
- Sandy Gate - located near to the junction with Clyst Road.
- Mile End - near to County Hall on Topsham Road.
A view of Withybridge toll house and gate, at the junction of Blackboy Road and Mount Pleasant Road
Some roads such as Fore Street Heavitree and East Wonford Hill were repaired and improved by the Turnpike Trust. Others, such as Moor Lane, which now runs through the middle of the Sowton Industrial Estate, were entirely new roads.
The fee for passing through the gates was determined by the type of vehicle, the number of horses, and the purpose of the journey. People from the parish, soldiers on duty and clergymen often travelled free, but there were many disputes which had to be settled in the local courts. Many folk saw the gates and associated tolls as in infringement on movement that had hitherto been unimpeded.
In spite of the admirable work done by the Trusts to improve the network and quality of roads, the advent of the railway in the mid nineteenth century offered a faster, more reliable form of travel and transportation than horse-drawn road vehicles, certainly long-distance, to both individuals and to industry. Within just a few years, income from tolls fell dramatically, and road building and improvement correspondingly ground to a halt. Toll gates became uneconomic and were removed, and although toll houses were sold they often remained empty. Turnpike Trusts remained in existence for several decades thereafter before being wound up. They had, however, over the period in which they were operational, served their purpose of a means to a dramatic improvement of highways. The network we see today has much to owe to this important period in history.Scroll to top of page
Growth And Development In The Nineteenth Century
During the nineteenth century, Heavitree began a gradual but unwavering shift away from the small agricultural village by which it had hitherto been characterised. The number of residents and dwellings dramatically increased, and became more diverse. In 1569 the population stood at around 200. Even in 1801 the population was still just 833, but by 1901 this had risen sharply to 7529. Heavitree's growth was stimulated by the break-up of the Baring family estate, sold in the early nineteenth century, coinciding with a boom in building.
A map of Heavitree Towne in 1816
Johann Baring had come to Exeter from Germany in 1717 at the age of 20 to study serge-making. He married into the Vowler family who were wealthy Exeter merchants, and built up an extensive business in the wool and cloth trade. He became one of the richest men in the West Country, and invested heavily in land around Larkbeare and Mount Radford. His son John went on to become MP for Exeter, to co-found the esteemed Barings Bank in 1762, and establish both the Plymouth Bank and later the Devonshire Bank. Over three successive generations the amount of land in the vicinity owned by the Baring family grew, such that by the time of its break-up the estate comprised of practically all of the land between Larkbeare and Heavitree, including the whole of St Leonards.
The first development in Heavitree was that of Salutary Mount (now 2-30 Fore Street) which was built in the early nineteenth century. The construction of housing for the middle and upper classes continued with individual large houses such as Wonford Hill House (now Mowbray House) built in 1815, and Southlands (early 1830s), as well as groups such as Midway Terrace and Heavitree Park (both 1820s), and Mont-le-Grand and Regents Park in the late 1830s and early 1840s. Aside from the quality housing, a start had also been made on what became known as artisans' dwellings: Oakfield Street, dating from the early 1830s, was the first large-scale example of this.
An early view of Mont-le-Grand
Heavitree escaped practically unscathed from the cholera epidemic of 1832 that so badly affected the City of Exeter and St Thomas. This may well have persuaded both developers and prospective residents to appreciate Heavitree all the more. Besley in his Exeter Guide and Itinerary of 1836 certainly did an excellent job of extolling the virtues of Heavitree:
“Always famous for the purity and salubrity of its air, its delightful situation, fine prospects and agreeable walks and rides, has, within these few years, felt extensively, the exhilarating hand of modern improvements.
A row of houses that divided the road has been taken down, the road widened, and the turnpike removed.
The vast number of genteel houses and villas recently erected here far exceed our limits of description. It presents a charming seclusion, though cheerfully situated on the great western road, contiguous, or almost adjoining to a populous and increasing city.”
Besley, Exeter Guide and Itinerary 1836
A slump in the housing market put a temporary halt on development for a while mid-century; no houses were said to be under construction in the 1851 census compared to 31 in 1841. However, it wasn't too long before things picked up, with building recommencing later in the 1850s and continuing at a steady pace thereafter. The large villas in Polsloe Road were built in the 1870s, and by the end of the century the large Polsloe Park housing estate was nearing completion.Scroll to top of page
Examples Of Nineteenth Century Housing
Eagle House is a property in Salutary Mount (now 2-30 Fore Street), the earliest nineteenth century development of Heavitree. The name is unofficial, but it’s easy to see how it acquired it –two eagles face each other on the front corners of the roof parapet. There is also a large motif above the central front entrance.
Wikipedia states, 'The eagle with its keen eyes symbolized perspicacity, courage, strength and immortality, but is also considered "king of the skies" and messenger of the highest gods. With these attributed qualities the eagle became a symbol of power and strength in Ancient Rome.' This symbolism was adopted by European countries, particularly Germany during Nazi times, but also by the church, the RAF, etc.
Whilst not known if there is any significance to the decorative features of Eagle House, there are a number of theories: association with magistrates (as the symbol has been historically used to denote the power or jurisdiction of a magistrate), with Germany, or with an embassy. There is a house in Wonford Road, St Leonards, that has remarkably similar eagles on the parapets.
Eagle House in 2017
Members of the 'Exeter Memories' Facebook group remember a teacher at Ladysmith First School, Mrs Edna Lawrence, used to live there. A sweet, white-haired, well-spoken lady, who loved art, and once invited the staff of the school to her home in Heavitree for 'a lovely get together'. She said that the adjoining door was where her mother lived. Many ex-pupils of hers remember that she told them she lived there, so must have been immensely proud of it!
The property was used for Brethren services for a period after the 1942 bombing raids, and was a doctor's in the 1950s.
An 1888 auction catalogue for Eagle House
Sale documents from 1888 show just how wonderful the house was at that time. It is described thus:
A 'very desirable double-fronted family residence, with capital stabling, extensive gardens, range of hot-houses, a convenient brick-built cottage for gardener or coachman and other appurtenances.' The whole area covers about 19,400 feet and is for sale by auction.
The top floor contains two servants' bedrooms. The first floor is approached by two staircases (the principal one of which is lighted by a large bay window) and contains six bedrooms, a dressing room fitted with lavatory and a bath-room with 'Maughan's Patent Geyser Heating Apparatus and W.C.'
The ground floor houses the entrance hall with bay window, 20ft by 12ft dining room with a bay window that opens out under a veranda (entwined with a well-trained vine) and thence onto the lawn; an 18ft by 13ft drawing room with a bay window, 'communicating by folding doors' to the breakfast room (15ft by 13ft), which also has a bay window that opens under the veranda. There is also a lavatory and W.C.
There are well arranged 'domestic offices', which are shut off and comprise of a kitchen with a good cooking range and dresser, wash-house with furnace, well of excellent spring water, pump, knife-house, boot-house, china-pantry, larder, coal-house, W.C. etc.
The reception rooms and principal bedrooms are fitted with marble mantlepieces; the house throughout is fitted with cupboards and the roof is in excellent order having just been repaired and the gutters renewed with lead at 'a large outlay'. The 'sanitary arrangements' are good; there is a bountiful supply of water and gas is laid on.
There is a lawn with a summerhouse, flower gardens and 'a profusely-stocked' kitchen garden in a 'high state of cultivation', with 'a variety of choice fruit trees'.
There are a range of hot-houses: 90ft in length comprising of two vineries with good bearing vines; a cucumber house and two greenhouses; there is also a melon frame and 'a convenient brick-built cottage for coachman or gardener, with a separate entrance from the church path'. The whole of the garden paths are asphalted and edged with tile.
The stabling and outhouses consist of a coach house, harness room, three stall stabling, piggery, poultry house and potting shed.
An 1888 floor plan of Eagle House
Studying the floor plan, provided with the auction details, shows that the main entrance was the door between the two bay windows (which no longer appears in use), the hallway from which would lead to the dining room on the left, and the drawing room on the right. The current entrance(s), to the left of the bay windows, must have been a later addition or modification. At the time it was the entrance to the coach house.
The plan also shows the huge the amount of land belonging to the house. The garden stretches down for a way and extends behind three neighbouring properties all the way to 'Church Path'.
Finally, it's interesting to look at the small details that this auction paper offers us. The bottom of the Eagle House' gardens backs onto the 'Rosery (i.e. rose gardens) of R.N.G. Baker Esq', and to the right of the house is 'Church Path' which probably became 'Church Terrace' when terraced houses were later built. Today, four houses stand between the Eagle House and Church Terrace, and at the end of Church Terrace is a path which leads to the Parish Church - along what might have been the back of this house's gardens. To the right of Church Path is land belonging to R. Sanders Esq.
This auction catalogue really paints a picture of a much more bucolic Heavitree, with few properties, ample space, and some incredibly lavish residences. It would have been a Heavitree on the cusp of change, as not long after this auction took place, many more properties would have been built.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Park is a series of five grand houses built in the 1820s by Edward Eardley, an Exeter China merchant who was also later involved in the Mont-le-Grand development. The name Heavitree Park reflects the taste of the well-off at the time; they wanted country houses, near the city, with healthy sounding names. This is underlined by the rustic look of the Lodge building at the entrance. Eardley was leased the land in 1825 on the condition he erected houses and outbuildings of brick and stone, not cob, to a value of £3,000 each. They were built by 1829.
The lodge at Heavitree Park in 2018
Wonford Hill House
Next to Heavitree Park is a house built around 1816 by James Tillyer Blunt, a retired captain in the East India Service. He called the property Wonford Hill House. It was subsequently renamed Mowbray House, and was lived in by a variety of people including Colonel Vaughan, Chairman of Heavitree Urban District Council in the early 20th century. It later became a hospital – first recorded as a home hospital under Miss Biggs and Miss Hunter in 1923. It was a well-known local maternity hospital until its closure in 1986. For a time after this the building was used for nursing training. It is now a residential property again.
Mowbray House in 2018
Southlands was built in the early 1830s by William Hooper, a member of an important local family of architects and builders. It was probably named after Colonel Samuel Smith who owned the land at the time of construction. Initially, Southlands was in fact two properties, but the one nearer to Polsloe Road was at some point renamed Clystlands; the other retains the name Southlands to this day.
Southlands in 2019
In 1834 the property was sold for £2,250 to the Reverend James Ford, brother of Richard Ford (who lived at Heavitree House in Church Street). Southlands remained in private hands until acquired by the City Council around 1950. The property has since seen use as a welfare centre and as sheltered housing. It was Grade II listed in 1974.Scroll to top of page
Clystlands was built in the mid 1830s by William Hooper, a member of an important local family of architects and builders. Initially, it was one of two neighbouring properties named Southlands, probably after Colonel Samuel Smith who owned the land at the time of construction. At some point, the one nearer to Polsloe Road was later renamed Clystlands, a name that it retains to this day.
Clystlands in 2019
In the 1840s the property belonged to John South Esq. The last private resident was Admiral Sir Charles Coke. After he moved out, in about 1926 it became the Clystlands private hotel, until St Lukes College purchased it after the war for a hall of residence. In 1982, the University of Exeter, which had absorbed St Lukes College, sold Clystlands and it became a private nursing home. It was Grade II listed in 1953.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree House, Church Street
Heavitree House was a small cob house, surrounded by an old cob wall, in Church Lane, Heavitree. It stood on twelve acres of land, including orchards, overlooking open countryside (now the RD&E Hospital).
The House was the home of artist and author Richard Ford (1796-1858), who in 1845 wrote the infamous "Handbook for Travellers in Spain" - the first Spanish travel guide. Ford lived at the property from 1835 until his death in 1858. During this time he set about enlarging and completely remodelling the House and gardens.
|1889 OS map||Young Richard Ford||Older Richard Ford||Richard Ford's headstone|
Ford incorporated many items salvaged from buildings in the area - the fireplace was taken from a house pulled down in Rack Street (West Quarter), and the ornate staircase, gates and carved woodwork all came from King John's Tavern on South Street (which was being rebuilt). A font in the garden was possibly taken from the 1845 rebuild of parts of Heavitree Church; this has since been returned to the Church.
An enthusiastic collector, Ford filled the House with items from his travels. The bathroom was tiled with original tiles that he had picked up off the floor of the Alhambra, Granada. Part of the bath was made from the original register-chest at Exeter Cathedral, and there were sculpted heads on a parapet, from Italy.
In the grounds of the house, Ford laid out 'Moorish' style rectangular gardens, with many pools and fountains, lined with cypress trees and featuring a Moorish tower / gazebo building, echoing the Hispano, Berber, and Islamic architecture of Morocco.
|1843 painting||House + gardens pre-1878||House in good condition|
Following Ford's death in 1858, Heavitree House passed to his son from his second marriage, Clare Ford. The House was let out until its sale in 1898 to Edward and Annie Shrimpton; they lived there until just before the First World War. The House then passed through several hands, before most of the grounds were sold at auction in 1938 for house building. The House itself remained and was used as a workshop during the Second World War, before falling into disrepair by 1949; it was demolished in 1960, despite being grade II listed, and replaced by further housing.
|1938 auction plan||House in poor condition||Richard Ford Court flyer||Richard Ford memorial|
All that remains today are a few red sandstones from the garden, and a small black plaque bearing Richard Ford's name on the wall of Richard Ford Court in Meadow Way.
Further information on Richard Ford can be found here.Scroll to top of page
Stafford Lodge, a large detached building facing the Livery Dole almshouses, was built between 1851 and 1861, and hidden from the road by a high Heavitree Stone wall.
In 1890 it was renamed Rowancroft, and was used as a girls school until 1921 by Mrs Chambers-Hogetts. The property was then vacant for a while, but by 1927 it was being used as an elementary school for boys in training for holy orders.
Stafford Lodge in 2013
In 1943 it was requisitioned by the Army and used to accommodate staff in the Army Pay Corps. It was a very comfortable billet, popular with both men and women serving in the regiment. It was rocked by tragedy when one of the female soldiers was murdered in the house by an American serviceman stationed in the city.
In 1947 the house became a hostel for St Lukes College. In 1978 ownership transferred from the College to the University of Exeter when the two were amalgamated. With demand for student accommodation growing, a large development of new residential blocks was built in 2009 on what originally was tennis courts and lawns.Scroll to top of page
Polsloe Park Estate
If you consider a rough rectangle bordered by Polsloe Road, Pinhoe Road, Ladysmith Road and South Avenue then you have the position and scale of the former Polsloe Park estate.
Today the area is more or less built up and it is hard to imagine what was there in the early nineteenth century. However, maps clearly show the estate consisting of a large house near the north-west corner (Polsloe Road / Pinhoe Road) together with extensive gardens, shrubberies and fields.
An 1880 OS map of Polsloe Park estate showing completed building at the southern end
An article in Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries (Volume 17 1932-3) tells us a little about its ownership: "Prebendary Jonas Dennis of Polsloe Park, Exeter, a property which was owned for three generations, was stated in the Exeter Gazette, 1846, to be the ninth in descent from Sir Thomas Denys of Holcombe Burnell. A portrait of Sir Thomas in armour, understood to be to be a Holbein, was said to be in his possession."
Dennis seems to have been a colourful character. He was prebendary of the Royal Collegiate Church of the castle of Exeter, and was active in religious politics. This involvement included controversial election campaigns for convocation, the ecclesiastical parliament, and as a hard-line opponent of concessions to Catholicism. He was renowned for lengthy speeches, and in the Exeter Flying Post in 1819 he admitted of one diatribe that it had been “a long and laborious task and your patience was put to a tedious and severe trial."
Dennis placed a 'For Sale' notice for the estate in the Exeter Flying Post of 24th December 1846. This gives an excellent description of the property which once stood on the periphery of Heavitree, and of how the area was marketed to wealthy Victorians:
"Polsloe Park is situated in the most elevated and healthy part of the Parish of Heavitree, commanding views, which for extent, diversity, and richness of scenery, cannot be surpassed in the neighbourhood. It is within 10 minutes walk of the centre of Exeter, and has the two-fold advantage of a town and country residence. There are three carriage approaches, one without and two within the turnpike gate.
The house was built a few year since in the most substantial manner without limit as to price, for the late Proprietor's own residence, and the internal arrangements are complete, and adequate to the requirements of a large family.
It contains on the ground floor a spacious entrance hall, 27ft by 18ft, in which there is a fire place with a frontispiece beautifully and elaborately carved in oak and a grand staircase in character with the hall, drawing and dining room, each 27ft by 18ft and 12ft in height, library 18ft by 15ft.
There are five best bedrooms, each about 18ft by 14ft and 10ft in height, three dressing rooms and a water closet on the first floor. Three attics and room for three more in an unfinished state on the second floor and back staircase.
The basement offices consist of a kitchen 27ft by 18ft, back kitchen, servants' hall, butler's pantry, store closet, larder, beer, wine and coal cellars, with other useful offices, and is well supplied with pump water.
The land and pleasure ground attached to the house is three and a half acres; and from 35 to 40 acres immediately adjoining of rich pasture land may also be had if required."
The estate was duly sold in 1848 to wealthy tailor Stephen Brunskill. The electoral roll in 1856 had a Reverend William Grylls in residence. From around 1864 houses were being built on the southern end of the estate (now South, North and East Avenues) under the auspices of the Exeter Freehold Land Society established in 1857.
A major change at the northern end came about in 1881 with the construction of a long-forgotten sports ground for the Devon County Cycling and Athletic Society. The Exeter Flying Post reported, "The ground acquired by the Society was a splendid site on the south side of Polsloe Park. It lays high and commands a wide range of scenery, including the estuary of the Exe."
The facility consisted of two tracks, one cinder for cycling, the other turf for foot races. The centre of the grass track was for tennis and cricket; the Exeter Cricket Club played here in 1884 and 1885. The Exeter Flying Post also reports, "under the trees which skirt the western end of the ground a number of seats have been fixed for accommodation of spectators."
A 1905 OS map of Polsloe Park estate showing completed building at the northern end
The mayor of Exeter opened the ground. In those days Heavitree was independent of Exeter, and the mayor is reported as saying that "although the grounds were outside the city boundary at present, he has no doubt that in future they would come within it (laughter)." His prediction of course finally came true in 1913.
The tracks, said the mayor, would "bear comparison with any in England." They were launched with a grand two day cycling and athletic meeting, and ended with "an excellent display of fireworks" witnessed by a great crowd of spectators. The principal piece was a bicycle and rider in motion, with the words "Success to our Sports."
Despite all this, within just a few year plans were being drawn up for a housing estate (Park Road, St Johns Road, Jubilee Road, etc) on the site, and by 1886 roads were being laid out.
There was now housing at both the southern and northern ends of the site, but what about the middle? Here the Exeter Brick and Tile Company established a brickyard where Ladysmith Junior School playing fields are now. The company was formed in 1899 to manufacture 100,000 bricks per week.
Within forty years a quiet corner of Heavitree had been turned into a major hive of housing and industry. A small but representative example of the transformation the area saw during Victorian times.Scroll to top of page
Regent Square And John James Fry Ellis
John James Fry Ellis
John James Fry Ellis was born in 1849 and trained as a builder before specialising in plumbing and gas-fitting work. He married Brenda Louise Elliot, an Exeter girl of twenty years of age. They lived at 7 Plantation Buildings, Newtown later moving to 50 Clifton Road, which he owned, along with number 49, from where he ran his business as a registered plumber and gasfitter.
A 1904 OS map showing Plantation Buildings, Ellis' first home
Coming from a poor family (his grandparents were registered as paupers), it isn’t known where Ellis found the money to begin building and selling houses, but his ambition and enthusiasm for property is clear. Ellis had certainly chosen a trade that would have been in high demand as gas became more popular in the home. Personal contacts and connections were vitally important, and Ellis must have had these. No doubt he also took advantage of Exeter's huge need for new, rentable properties.
Bertha Villas, Alexandra Terrace (named after Ellis' eldest daughter) in 2019
In 1879 Ellis built two houses on Alexandra Terrace, Exeter, which he named Bertha Villas, after his eldest daughter. These were grand houses were described in 1880 by the Exeter and Plymouth Gazette as: “each containing, on the ground floor, front parlour with bay window, two kitchens, cupboards, larder, coal-cellar and WC; two gardens in front and garden at the back; on the first floor, drawing-room and bedroom and WC and lavatory off landing; on the second floor, two bedrooms. These houses are well-built and furnished in good style. They contain numerous cupboards and useful fixtures, gas and water pipes, two cisterns, lead pumps...”
Not long after this, Ellis transferred his business (which appears to have been flourishing) to a new owner, although he retained ownership of the building. He must have been ambitious, as he tried unsuccessfully to become a Sanitary Inspector for the Council.
Although it was a short-lived venture, it was perhaps this failure that inspired Ellis to take a new direction and become landlord of the Bristol Inn (destroyed in the Blitz, it stood where John Lewis is now, at 3 Sidwell Street). The 1881 census shows Ellis as Innkeeper, living there with Brenda, their eight children ranging from 11 years to 5 months, Louise Elliot, mother-in-law, and a general servant.
John James Fry Ellis with his wife Brenda and family c.1880
Many auctions of land and property were held at the Bristol Inn. Ellis himself bought land in Newtown at these auctions, and also sold newly-built properties in the area.
Perhaps being present at so many auctions, in an ever-expanding Exeter, was what inspired Ellis to purchase the land to build Regent Square, his most ambitious venture yet. Although he had already built several houses by this time, planning and building sixty-three terraced houses was a new challenge entirely. It’s not known where Ellis got the money, but one can only assume that it was being ‘in the right place at the right time’ combined with an urge to better himself, and a knowledge of the practical work involved in building houses, that led him to have such a dream, and to take such a risk financially. Conveyances show that he borrowed heavily to carry out his project.
By the end of 1882, the Bristol Inn was under new license, and the Ellis family had moved to 71 Fore Street, Heavitree (now Shauls bakery) – conveniently close to the Regent Square site whilst building took place.
Brenda Villas, West Homefield (named after Ellis' wife) in 2019
Once the building of Regent Square was complete, Ellis moved to 1 Brenda Villas, West Homefield (now Homefield Road), one of two houses that he had built some time before 1884. These houses were named after his wife, and adjoined Homefield House (where the United Reformed Church now stands). They are still there today.
Conveyances show that he must have been under some financial strain due to the building of Regent Square. He tried to sell many of his properties and several more passed to Robert E Seward, when Ellis was unable to settle his debts.
Around 1885, Ellis built Progress Villas - a pair of semi-detached houses, with large kitchen gardens to the rear - in one of the more upmarket areas of Heavitree, Polsloe Park Estate. This area could have been described as ‘upwardly mobile’. We know that Ellis was responsible for building these houses, as we can just make out his name on the plaque. Today they still stand, now 42 East Avenue.
Progress Villas, East Avenue in 2019
It is uncertain where Ellis and his family were living for the next few years, but it is clear that he was finding it difficult to repay his mortgages and debts, especially as he seems to have had trouble selling some of the properties that he had built. In 1887, he took out a loan of £1000 on security of numbers 50, 53 and 62 Regent Square.
By 1891, he seems to have been managing a bit better, as he moved his family to 1 Progress Villas. The Ellis family found themselves living amongst solicitors, accountants, music teachers and journalists. What a rise from Plantation Buildings!
Alas, Ellis' debts seem to have caught up with him again by the end of 1896. Adverts appeared for auctions of probably all the property he owned, including Progress Villas, where the family were still living.
The last property he acquired was 13 Verney Place, St Sidwells, and we think that it was into this property that the family moved when Progress Villas was sold. What a contrast! Verney Place was destroyed in the Blitz, but is remembered as being one of many dark, narrow, slum-like areas off Sidwell Street.
Ellis' death certificate
Ellis died suddenly in 1898, aged just 49 years, of a cerebral haemorrhage and hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body). Oddly, his death certificate shows the place of death as 38 St Leonards Avenue. Perhaps this was another property that he owned or had acquired. We know that it was purchased a couple of years later ‘as part of a bankrupt estate’, which could have been Ellis’. His funeral took place on April 2nd at Higher Cemetery, where he is buried with his father John.
The Exeter Flying Post simply stated:
“DEATHS: ELLIS, March 27th, John Ellis, plumber and builder, late of Newtown and Heavitree, aged 49”
One would have expected more to be said about a man who showed such resourcefulness and was so important to Exeter. His memory lives on in the properties that he built; he certainly left his mark on Exeter. If he had conquered his financial problems, and lived to an older age, one can imagine how much more he could have contributed to Exeter.
Ellis' headstone, Higher Cemetery in 2019
After his death, Brenda continued to live in Verney Place, before later moving to 11 Holloway Street. Despite having many children, supporting her husband and moving all over Exeter, Brenda lived to 78 years old, outliving most of her children.
Regent Square: From Gardens To Residential Development
By the mid-Victorian period, housing for the artisan sector was in demand, provided it was built to a good standard and could be rented out for a good return. In the course of his business and work, Ellis would have seen the potential for development in many areas of Exeter, and must have been waiting for his chance to cash in. When the land on which Regent Square now stands came up for sale, Ellis had the chance to really make his mark. Just like modern-day property developers Ellis planned to fit as many properties into the area as possible.
An 1813 map illustrating how rural Heavitree was, consisting mainly of fields and orchards.
The land to the left of Burrow’s Field is roughly where Regent Square now stands
Ellis would have completed a detailed survey to acknowledge the potential of the land (currently market gardens) for development, and to highlight any possible problems. The fall of ground would have been a good sign that there would be natural surface water disposal. The 1875 Public Health Act (aimed at combating filthy urban living conditions and the diseases associated with them) required that all new residential construction had to include running water and an internal drainage system, and gave local authorities the power to purchase, repair or create sewers. Ellis’ experience of being a trained plumber would certainly prove its worth.
The 1840s tithe map of Heavitree showing the area that was to become Regent Square
Regent Square was to have 28 three-bedroom and 35 two-bedroom houses, a total of 63 properties, within a very compact parcel of land. There were no front gardens and the small rear gardens (with perimeter brick walls) had no official rear access (apart from the centre block which provided access to 18 properties from either side).
The houses of Regent Square are good examples of early ‘byelaw terraced houses’. No planning permission was required at this time, but thanks to the 1875 Public Health Act, local authorities were given the power to set down some building regulations to ensure that the houses were safe and sanitary. This act would only just have come into practice so controls were probably still minimal in Exeter. The quality of housing in Regent Square, therefore, is a credit to the builders, tradesmen and materials of the time.
The plaque at the corner of Regent Square bearing Ellis' insignia in 2019
There is no record of when work actually commenced on Regent Square. The plaque on the Force charity shop (73 Fore Street) shows a date of 1883; such plaques were usually placed on completion of works.
The houses were built of locally sourced bricks, most likely from Pengelly’s Brickworks, recently opened in what is now part of the Pleasure Ground, behind Roseland Crescent. (Pengelly, another keen property developer in Heavitree, built Newcombe Street around the same time as Regent Square was built. These tightly-packed streets of terraced houses were similar examples of Heavitree’s first proper Victorian developments). Sampson's Brick Yard, where Ladysmith School playing fields are now, was another possibility for brick supplies, but Pengelly’s would have been the most convenient. Transportation of bricks and materials by horse and cart would have been very labour intensive; probably 500 cart loads of bricks alone for the Square.
The 1887 OS map, showing Regent Square, with rear entrance opening
onto meadow / market garden, and the brickworks in close proximity
The houses had cast iron guttering, cast stone lintels, wooden sash windows, standard wooden front doors and front steps that were probably tiled. As they opened straight onto the road, boot scrapers were built into the front of the houses, next to the door. These were cast iron and the designs vary from house to house, perhaps because not all the houses were built at once.
Roofs were covered by what would appear to be Welsh Slate. Even with the extra transport cost, the Welsh slate would have been more cost effective than Cornish Slate. The slate would have been transported from the Welsh quarries, shipped to Bridgewater or Watchet in Somerset, then to Exeter by steam goods train. A total of 44,000 slates would eventually be delivered to Regent Square by horse and cart from the rail terminus.
The houses would have been some of the last terraced houses to have been built identically. Soon after, it became more popular to build ‘handed’ houses (i.e. differentiated into right and left) with front doors next to each other, a shared chimney stack and often more light due to the extensions sharing a wall.
Ellis sold some of the plots, with houses yet to be built, to repay some of his debts. For example, he sold the plot of land for 2 Regent Square for £25 in February 1883, along with neighbouring building plots. The legal documents contain very specific instructions as to how the remaining houses should be built, in keeping with the overall plan. The purchaser of some of this land was John Sampson, a very significant figure in Heavitree's history with ‘a finger in every pie’. Sampson later owned two houses on Regent Square (51 and 52) which he rented out to provide income to fund one of his philanthropic projects – Manor Cottages (off Fore Street), almshouses for the poor.
|8 Regent Square in 1910||62 Regent Square around 1932|
This article is an extract from a 2019 publication by Sally Robinson (former resident of the Square, and a member of the HLHS) detailing the life of J J F Ellis and the history of Regent Square. The publication can be downloaded here; hard-copies are available on request from the Society.Scroll to top of page
The Gordon Lamp
The Gordon Lamp stands at Livery Dole at the forking of Magdalen Road and Fore Street, on the site of an old toll house that was demolished in 1884. The lamp was cast by Garton and King at their foundary in Waterbeer Street, Exeter. It was erected in 1885 at the request of Prebendary Barnes, the vicar of Heavitree, in memory of his friend General Charles George Gordon (1833-1885), who had stayed as a guest at the vicarage, and who was killed in his attempt to relieve Khartoum. It bears the simple inscription: “Charles George Gordon 26th January 1885”. Originally lit by gas, this has been replaced by a modern but aesthetically-pleasing electric reproduction. In 2015, the Exeter Civic Society renovated the lamp and placed an information board near by.
The Gordon Lamp in 2015
General Gordon was born in 1833 in Woolwich into a military background, but his family was connected with the St Thomas area of Exeter. His grandparents had lived in Lower Bowhill House, subsequently the site of St Thomas Lunatic Asylum; their memorial is in St Thomas Church. Gordon visited the church early in 1884 to see the memorial shortly before being summoned to the Sudan where he was to die a hero a year later.
An image of General Gordon
The Exeter Civic Society publication 'Discovering Exeter: Heavitree' provides an insight into street lighting in Heavitree at the time:
'Public lighting was a major concern. Although gas mains were laid to private houses, it was not until 1870 that "ten lamps now illuminate the path of the traveller". By 1874 there were thirteen, and proposals were then made to more than double the number, but even after that date the small number of lamps publicly provided explains the importance attached to the provision of the Gordon Lamp after the General's death in 1885, and of Councillor Nethercott's lamp in North Street as late as 1912.
The significance of public lighting is indicated by the fact that Heavitree Urban District Council (HUDC) had a lighting committee from its creation, and found plenty to discuss and do. In 1902, for example, the Secretary of the Exeter Gas Light Offices referred to the lamp at the corner of Sivell Place:
"I find it is a general practice to use this post for tying horses to and frequently the mantles are broken, also very much damage is done by waggons colliding with it."
The committee minutes for 1908 record that "the Heavitree Brewery had paid for the new lamp fixed in Church Street in the place of the one destroyed by their runaway horse." 'Scroll to top of page
Heavitree And The Trams
Tram services arrived in Exeter in 1882. They were horse-drawn and operated over two routes on behalf of the City Council by the Exeter Tramway Company on a 21 year franchise – St Davids Station to the Mount Pleasant Inn (now Henry’s Bar), and London Inn Square to St Lukes College, Heavitree Road. The latter was extended to Livery Dole in 1893.
The trams were canary yellow, with brown lettering. They had bench-style seats on top, and inside the seats faced each other. Two horses pulled each tram, but four were needed to pull a tram up St David’s Hill.
An Exeter horse-drawn tram
The trams completely bypassed the City centre as traders objected, preferring people to travel by carriage and pull up outside their shops. As a result, the trams were never very profitable, and the service declined appreciably towards the end of the nineteenth century.
With the end of the 21 year franchise looming, in 1902 a poll of residents was taken on whether the trams should a) be run by the City Council and b) run along the High Street. The result was a decisive “yes” on both counts. Clearly the shopkeepers who had opposed horse-drawn trams had noticed that Sidwell Street was thriving, and this time wanted to be part of the action.
A map of the Exeter tram network
In 1904, Exeter Corporation purchased Exeter Tramway Company and its stock. New lines were put down, and the network extended across the River Exe to St Thomas, as well as through Heavitree to Cross Park.
New electric trams began operating in 1905 from a depot in Heavitree Road, close to where the Pyramids now stands. They were dark green and cream, with gold lettering and a dark maroon undercarriage, and utilised the overhead trolley system for their supply of electricity. Within a couple of months, the new trams were carrying 80,000 passengers a week, rising to 100,000 before long.
Exeter tram depot in Heavitree Road
Generally, the trams were reliable and ran to time, with few accidents occurring, although the weather caused occasional upheaval. Most of the problems happened during World War I when there was a shortage of staff and of electricity.
Pedestrian safety was the real issue that began to be encountered. To board a tram, one had to walk to the centre of the road. By the 1920s there were a lot more vehicles on the roads, and with many motorists believing they were entitled to keep going in spite the fact the tram had stopped, there were several episodes of people getting hit.
An electric tram at Cross Park, Heavitree
With car ownership increasing exponentially, the High Street was far too narrow for both trams and cars. The Council realised that buses were far more manœuvrable than trams: they could pull in, and there was scope for two lanes of traffic.
In 1931, Exeter’s final tram made its journey, ending a period of almost fifty years of trams between Exeter and Heavitree.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Urban District Council
For centuries the parish was responsible for overseeing most things in Heavitree: care of the needy, maintaining law and order, and education, for example. During the nineteenth century, the population of Heavitree grew rapidly, and the area changed from a village into more of an urban area. It became necessary for a more formal body to administer day-to-day affairs, thus the Heavitree Urban District Council (HUDC) was formed in 1896 and took on most of the parish’s responsibilities.
Church Street in 1909 showing the location of the Heavitree UDC offices
Its life proved to be a short one of just seventeen years. It's not clear why this is, but the issue of annexation no doubt came into the equation somewhere. Among the benefits the HUDC brought to Heavitree during its lifetime were:
The battle against annexation of Heavitree by Exeter had been going on for decades, and although the HUDC fought a good fight on behalf of the people of Heavitree, it was becoming increasingly clear that the area was in effect already a suburb of Exeter, and thus sooner or later annexation was inevitable. It's not clear why annexation occurred when it did, or how it ultimately came about.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Pleasure Ground
One of the most treasured and frequented areas of Heavitree has to be its Pleasure Ground, often incorrectly referred to as Heavitree Park which is located nearby at the intersection of Butts Road and Fore Street.
At the start of the twentieth century, fields and orchards in the Heavitree area were being secured for housing at an alarming rate. Thus, in 1905 the Heavitree Urban District Council (HUDC) purchased four fields off Whipton Lane for the purpose of a Pleasure Ground, similar to those that had already opened in the Belmont and St Thomas areas of Exeter in 1886 and 1891 respectively.
|Site of Heavitree Pleasure Ground, 1904||Heavitree Pleasure Ground, 1936|
The Pleasure Ground was designed to have something for everyone: gardens and open spaces in which to relax and improve well-being, sports areas, and a play-area for children. It had been noted that youths often congregated on Fore Street, causing a nuisance with their antics and colourful language; the development would give them somewhere to go, and something to do.
F.W. Meyer **, an employee of Veitch and Sons, well-established and respected horticulturists in the area, was tasked with planning and ornamental planting of the Pleasure Ground. A path was laid around the site, drainage improved, and trees and shrubs from around the world were planted.
The Heavitree Pleasure Ground was opened on 1st May 1906 by Colonel Vaughan (Chairman of the HUDC), attended by J.W.W. Matthew (Clerk) and F.E. Simpson (Surveyor). A plaque commemorating this can be seen in the wall next to the main entrance in Whipton Lane.
A view of Heavitree Pleasure Ground, opened 1st May 1906
There was still much to be done. Development continued after this date until the annexation of Heavitree into Exeter in 1913, and beyond.
In 1906, a further area was acquired, and two fields were let for mowing and sheep grazing.
Also in 1906, a tennis court, bowling green, and children’s play-area near the current basketball court, were added, the children having been warned that they must behave properly. To begin with, only Heavitree parishioners were allowed to use the tennis court and bowling green; over time others were allowed to use the facilities but had to pay at a higher rate.
The opening memorial stone at Heavitree Pleasure Ground in 2013
In 1907, Robert James was appointed ground keeper and gardener, at a rate of 24/- a week, and “that he be provided with a cap”. Mr James was needed as several boys had been brought before the Committee and fined for causing damage to the grounds. There was swearing during football matches, and help was needed on Sundays when behaviour was especially poor – broken bottles and damage to plants were noted.
In 1908, Heavitree Cricket Club requested a portion of land for cricket practice.
Other Improvements over the next five years: Entrance gates were provided; ladies and children’s toilets were built; additional trees and shrubs were planted, including in 1911, the King George V coronation oak, which survived until 2016 before being severely lopped due to disease; seats were provided around the swings; see-saws provided in the playground; a plant nursery established.
The plaque in Heavitree Pleasure Ground by the King George V coronation oak in 2016
Over the years, features have been added (new play-area, paddling pools, BMX/skateboard ramps, basketball court), others have come and gone (a pavilion, Heavitree United Football Club using the Ground for matches), some in the original plans by F.W. Meyer never came to fruition (e.g. a large, formal, circular bed in the centre of the Ground with a statue in the midst, a small lake near the bowling green), but the Pleasure Ground remains as popular now as when it was first opened.
Parklife Heavitree was established in 2010 to build and nurture the local community, based around the Pleasure Ground. They hold regular events: an annual Fun-Day, weekly keep fit and running groups, and monthly seasonal events (e.g. Easter egg hunt, Carol singing). They have a refreshment van which is used each week. They also have plans to build a community hub and café near to the bowling green.
There seem to be very few older photographs of the Pleasure Ground. If you have or know of any, please let us know.
The centenary memorial in Heavitree Pleasure Ground in 2016
Did You Know?
A small part of the current Pleasure Ground used to be a brickworks.
This area - bounded by Roseland Crescent, Hamlin Lane and Chard Road - was only added to the Pleasure Ground after World War II.
** Frederick W. Meyer was born in Germany in 1853, and died in 1906 just a few months after the Pleasure Ground was opened. The 1891 census lists him as living at 15 Elmside. He is buried in the Higher Cemetery. At the suggestion of David Morrish, one of the HLHS founding members, retirement apartments in Butts Road that replaced the old Red Cross H.Q. were named Meyer Court in memory of him.
The Widening Of North Street
By the beginning of the 20th century Heavitree was starting to expand more rapidly than ever before. Fields and orchards were being sold to developers and laid out for housing at an alarming rate. This in turn would lead to a projected growth of road traffic in the area, and consequently a requirement to improve the existing road network.
North Street, Heavitree had existed for years, yet was still relatively narrow. Although only a short stretch of road, given recent building at Polsloe Park (creating a through-route to Pinhoe Road for the first time via Goldsmith Street and Ladysmith Road), and around South Lawn Terrace, this was an ideal candidate for upgrade. Thus the Heavitree Urban District Council (HUDC), itself only established in 1896, proposed it be doubled in width.
North Street prior to widening
The minutes of the HUDC Streets Committee in 1908 record various payments to owners of properties in North Street to compensate them for the loss of their land required for the widening:
- A Mr Hutchings received three shillings per foot, and £7 10s to include the cost of setting back the railings;
- A Mr C. offered a portion of his garden for £47 10s to include the cost of setting back railings, but this offer was rejected;
- An offer was made by Messrs H & R, for four properties in Homefield Place for the purpose of widening North Street; the HUDC made a lower offer which was subsequently rejected.
An inspection of maps of the area show that corner properties, 8 and 9 Homefield Place, which hitherto had adjoined the property now occupied by the ‘Curry King’ Indian restaurant (then 7 Homefield Place), were demolished and became part of the highway.
|Map of North Street, 1904||Map of North Street, 1936|
In a scheme that cost £2,200, the Medical Officer of Health hailed in his annual report that the street had been turned "from a narrow and dangerous lane, to one of the widest streets in the district."
As an indication of civic pride at the time, a wall plaque marks the completion of the widening by the HUDC. It records the names of Henry Hill (chairman), J.R. Nethercott (vice-chair), J.W.W. Mathew (clerk) and F.E. Simpson (surveyor).
The commemorative plaque to the 1910 widening of North Street, seen here in 2018
A gas lamp, widely known as the Nethercott Lamp (named after the aforementioned J.R. Nethercott), was erected in 1912 to give light to the widened junction; this can still be seen today. Until their relocation in the early 1960s, when there was further modification of the area, there were public conveniences under the street, the entrance being in the centre of the street to the rear of the lamp.
The official unveiling of the Nethercott Lamp in 1912
The number of houses in North Street, according to Besley’s 1909 Exeter Directory was eleven on the east side – known as North Place, and twenty-four on the west – four of which were known as Oak Close, and eighteen of which were known as Shelton Place. The occupations of the inhabitants of these houses make interesting reading: they include several gardeners, a plumber, a blacksmith, a launderess, a coachman, an ironmonger, a wheelwright, an undertaker, a chimney sweep (remembered in the late 1920s as ‘Sooty’ Reed), an insurance agent, a butcher and a dairyman.
Apart from one or two recent additions, most of the buildings in North Street, including the Windsor Castle public house, remain as they were at the time of road widening in 1910.Scroll to top of page
The Annexation Of Heavitree
During the nineteenth century, propositions by the Exeter City Council regarding the matter of annexation were persistent as the town of of Heavitree began to develop and expand on its doorstep.
As early as 1835, the Vicar recognised the "increase of building which has lately taken place and converted the Parish into a suburb of Exeter," with the Parish Vestry resolving that "no part of it should come under the new City Council." In 1838 it opposed "any encroachment or extension of the Exeter jurisdiction or power whatever," and formed a standing committee to defeat any attempt. In 1840 it objected to Exeter's attempts to get market jurisdiction in Heavitree, in 1845 to extend county court jurisdiction, and in 1847 it resolved to fight "any attempt to sacrifice the independence of this Parish by incorporating it with the City of Exeter."
The creation of the Heavitree Urban District Council in 1896 gave some continued measure of independence and an elected body with wider powers to improve the district. It carried out a poll of residents in Heavitree around the turn of the century, the results of which are reported thus by the Western Times on 26th January 1900:
Result of polling at Heavitree.
The result of the poll demanded at the recent public meeting on the annexation question was declared early on Wednesday. Little interest was evinced by the inhabitants generally and only a few assembled to hear the result.
The figures were:
- Against Annexation 974
- For 349
- Majority 625
The number of papers sent out was about 1500. There were 15 spoilt votes and 178 did not fill in their paper.
The annexation of St Leonards in 1877 and St Thomas in 1899 had set a precedent however. It had been clear for years that the City Council wanted Heavitree to go the same way. A press cutting from 1912 illustrates well the battle for control of Heavitree. Although it was likely all members of the City Council agreed annexation of Heavitree was a desirable thing, there was something of an internal division as it seemed inappropriate practices might be used.
Press cutting of 4th March 1912, Exeter & Plymouth Gazette
The caption reads:
Miss Heavitree: "Unhand me sir!"
The Pirate Captain: "Once on board the lugger, you will and shall be ours!"
"Exeter wanted something that did not belong to it. The City desired to forcibly take Heavitree,
which was not right." - Alderman Stocker, at the last meeting of the Exeter City Council.
On 21st February 1913, the Devon and Exeter Gazette reported:
'At a meeting of Heavitree Urban District Council, held on Wednesday, among the items of estimated expenditure to be provided for during the ensuing year was a sum of £1,800 for "annexation opposition." The Chairman of the Finance Committee (Mr. White) said the annexation inquiry had already cost Heavitree £2,200 and was an iniquitous business, no doubt engineered by a few interested parties in Exeter. On the recommendation of the Finance Committee it was decided to levy a general district rate of 4s 4d in the £ in no.1 district, and 3s 10d in the £ in no.2 district – an increase of a shilling.'
It was clear from this that during 1913 the Urban District Council intended to continue resisting annexation. Justification for this is portrayed by a cutting from May 1913, that depicts the City Council presenting to the people of Heavitree a very different impression to reality, namely that it was amiable rather than greedy and self-centred.
Press cutting of 12th May 1913, Exeter & Plymouth Gazette
It's unclear as to whether the people of Heavitree felt that the advantages of being a part of Exeter outweighed the disadvantages, they were hood-winked or even forced into annexation by the City Council, they objected to the increasing cost of the resistance campaign and thus lost faith in the Urban District Council, or simply accepted the inevitable having fought a noble battle for so many years.
Whatever the situation, Heavitree finally succumbed at some point during 1913. Exeter had won and Heavitree became merely another district thereof. Life in the area would certainly change, for better or worse, in order to bring the hitherto independently-run town of over a thousand years into line with City practices.
Following annexation, a great controversy apparently raged in the City concerning the adjustment of the salaries of the City officials. This is illustrated in a satirical cartoon from the Devon & Exeter Gazette in 1914. This perhaps realised Heavitree's worst fears, viz. the City Council didn't care about them only promoting itself.
Satirical cartoon from 1914, Devon & Exeter Gazette
[The figures in the illustration represent Councillor Lucas, Councillor McGahey,
and Councillor Thomas Linscott (the oldest member of the Council)]
Writing in the parish magazine a few years after the takeover, the antiquarian Miss Beatrice Cresswell expressed the contemporary views of regret at annexation, and in particular over the loss of the system of rating independent of the City.Scroll to top of page
Retailing In Heavitree
From the time that retail really took off in the nineteenth century, right through until the latter part of the twentieth century, small, family-run shops could be found on many residential streets, in addition to shops on the main high streets. Smaller shops were initially run from people's front-rooms, but later, purpose-built premises were incorporated into residential developments, many at street junctions or at the corner of a road where they could catch the trade from both streets; they were collectively known as corner shops. In some locations, shops would be grouped together to form a parade. By far the largest proportion of corner shops sold groceries or provisions, and often passed down through several generations of the same family.
With only family members and may be a couple of workers to run the shop, rather than several shifts that we see today, opening hours were limited: most shops would close for an hour at lunchtime, would always be closed on Sunday, often on a Saturday afternoon, and on another weekday afternoon (usually a Wednesday or Thursday); this gave a 5 day working week spread over 6 days for workers; the owner would have accounts and orders to process out the back or after closing. Such hours were more than sufficient: customers worked around the opening hours - shops were there to provide a basic but adequate service for local customers, rather than trying to compete with others shops by attracting customers from a wider area or by staying open over longer hours.
Shopping in the early days was done as a necessity rather than the pastime that it has become today. Visits to larger stores, only to be found in the city centre, would take place no more than a couple of times a month at the very most, as there was little disposable income for every-day folk. Clothing was usually home-made, and was frequently handed down to younger siblings and friends, or could be bought cheaply at jumble sales (car-boot sales, charity shops and door-to-door collections have only been around since the 1990s). Household items would have been very basic and sparse by today's standards.
Before the refrigerator was invented and was cheap enough for everyone to afford, cool storage cupboards known as larders, were used to store food. As most food had a very limited shelf-life, it was necessary to buy in small amounts and to visit the grocery shop on a daily basis or at least several times a week. Customers would be served at the counter - goods were weighed, sliced and parcelled-up by the proprietor.
World War II might be regarded as the hey-day of the local shop. Rationing was introduced due to severe shortages - everyone was allocated to their local corner shop, meaning that they could only buy goods at this particular shop; the shop on the other hand would have a guaranteed and loyal set of customers. Most items were in very short supply, giving rise to the phrases "Dig for Victory" and "Make Do and Mend". Luxuries, that had hitherto been shipped in, were not seen in Britain for years - locally grown substitutes would be used instead, for example, parsnips mixed with banana-flavoured essence were eaten in the absence of real bananas. Those fortunate enough to have a garden or allotment did their bit for the war-effort by growing their own fruit and vegetables, and sharing surplus with neighbours and friends; parks and open spaces were converted into allotments. Home-grown items were very seasonably-orientated, yields varying greatly from one year to another with the weather conditions. Most items were only available for a few weeks each year, but could be blanched or par-boiled then stored in brine for eating as required out of season. Rationing continued for several years after the war for certain items as the country gradually return to normality.
After the war, in practically all areas of life there was a desire to leave the old behind, to look forward and never turn back, to embrace new radical ideas. Retail was no different - by the late 1950s self-service stores (later known as supermarkets) began to open. The convenience of being able to buy everything in a single store, and more and more people being able to afford to own a fridge and a car, gave way to the idea of a 'weekly food shop'. Once loyal customers of the corner shop slowly began to defect; the decline of the local shop had begun. Many survived for a number of decades longer, until their owners retired and younger folk had no desire to take them on.
Today even the larger high-street stores struggle to survive as rents rise, tastes change more rapidly and become more diverse, and on-line shopping becomes more prevalent. However, there is some evidence of late to suggest that there is something of a revolt against larger stores in favour of smaller shops once again, as climate-change and excessive use of packaging, especially (single-use) plastic, has become an important issue for many people; in addition, some supermarkets tempt shoppers with offers that penalise suppliers rather than the shop bearing the cost. Home delivery by larger stores and independent tradesman, that was once common-place but largely died out as people chose to tackle the 'weekly food shop' by themselves, is taking off again as people juggle their time between work and leisure. Sadly, it's unlikely that the corner shop will ever be as ubiquitous as it was in days gone by.
Retailing In Fore Street
As the main street in Heavitree, Fore Street has for many years been lined with a good number of shops and establishments providing a range of services to residents and passers-by.
In common with the local corner shops, in the early years these outlets would have been small, family-run affairs that often saw little change for years. More recently, a number of the small businesses have been taken over by larger franchises seen in many towns and cities. The pace of change has also quickened meaning that shops especially often stay for a much shorter period of time.
Retailing in Fore Street
[transcribed from a booklet published by the Society in 1999 & augmented]
It is interesting to note how the type of outlet has changed over the years. Modern Fore Street, although still relatively thriving, is not perhaps what it once was, now dominated by charity shops and cafés / restaurants rather than shops selling provisions or household items.
When Heavitree was a separate urban area from Exeter, Fore Street would have been the main shopping street; sadly now it is seen by many merely as a means to reach the main shopping area - Exeter city centre - with large numbers simply driving through.
|Fore Street, Heavitree at various times throughout the twentieth century|
Banks Of Heavitree
Heavitree's first bank, based at 1 Isca Terrace (now 34 Fore Street), opened in July 1906 as The Union of London and Smiths Bank Limited. By 1919 this became The National Provincial and Union Bank of England, Ltd (Exeter Bank Branch). It relocated to next to Ellis' Place in 1927, by which time the name had been shortened to a more manageable National Provincial Bank. In the early 1970s, the bank enlarged to take over the adjacent property and was renamed again to the National Westminster Bank, latterly known simply as Natwest.
Heavitree's first bank, opened in July 1906
Lloyds Bank also had a branch in Heavitree, initially located next to The Ship Inn but latterly at 65 Fore Street.
In 2015 both banks closed within a few months of each other, due to falling customer numbers as people increasingly turned to on-line banking. This left Heavitree without a bank for the first time in nigh on 110 years.
Lost Corner Shops Of Heavitree
Heavitree holds the 'ghosts' of many lost corner shops. Some live on only in the memories of people who used to work or shop there; others still reveal clues that they were once shops, be it in the shape of a window, or an old advertisement on the side of the building; many have been converted into houses, flats, or offices.
We've gathered together some examples, and some people's memories of shops that have disappeared. This is not a comprehensive list and may include errors. Do you remember shopping in any of these shops, or know of others? Please let us know and we'll update the list.
|Street||Shop||Additional Information / Memories|
|Baker Street||Grocers||Number 1. Run by a Jewish lady and her husband.|
|Barrack Road||Dykes grocers||Number 1.|
|Bonnington Grove||Grocers||On the corner of Goldsmith Street. Called Mizens in the 50s and 60s. Believe it became H A & M A Jones grocery.|
|Chard Road||Tellings grocers||On the left hand corner of Chard Road and Nicholas Avenue. 'J.P. Telling did some super magic tricks, and apparently had half a thumb missing. He also had a hobby of breeding exotic fish. As a kid I could only ever afford a basic goldfish from him, but they generally lived a long time.' Later known as Chard Road News.|
|Chard Road Post Office||On the right hand corner of Chard Road and Nicholas Road, opposite Tellings.|
|Chards sweet shop||On the corner of Whipton Lane. At various times run by Col. Himbury, Philps, Bissex. Also sold fireworks. At one time had a small library you could borrow books from. Now Quickprint.|
|Dawsons grocers||To the right of Chards. Existed until early 2000s, when Quickprint expanded from neighbouring premises.|
|East Wonford Hill||Fitzroys grocers||On the right hand corner of Victor Lane. 'The little shop with the big stock'. Now a hairdressers.|
|Chemist||On the left hand corner of Victor Street. Now a reptile shop.|
|First Avenue||Butchers||Number 1|
|Grocers||Number 23. On the left hand corner of Second Avenue.|
|Homefield Road||Hodgsons shoe repairs||Number 1 (Brenda Villas). 'He used to sit in the window of the shop with his assistant, next up to Thornes’ Ironmongers. When he spoke to us young boys he always had a mouthful of tacks that he took out one at a time to nail in the shoes. He also had a cigarette in his mouth at the same time.'|
|Dairy||Number 5. Still there in late 1950s. Since replaced with more modern housing.|
|Castles||Number 10. Became Fortes chip shop. Open until around 1970. One lady recalls 'Used to get six penny-worth of chips and gribbles after Guides.'|
|Bakers||Short-lived, but 'the lady made the best doughnuts.'|
|Ladysmith Road||Chambers grocers||Number 1A. Near the corner of St Marks Avenue. Closed 2013.|
|Post Office & newsagent||On the left hand corner of Lower Avenue. Closed 2015.|
|Yandells sweet shop||Diagonally opposite the post office, on the left hand corner of Hanover Road.|
|Marks & Co.||Opposite the post office, on the right hand corner of Hanover Road. Electrical engineers. Closed 2012.|
|Livery Dole||Top Video||On the corner of Barrack Road and Heavitree Road. The shop closed in 1995.|
|Livery Dole News||Charlie Rogers was newsagent in the 1960s. He always had a pipe or thick cigar in his mouth. Later, the shop was called Langmaids News. At some point ‘The Rainbow Café’ was next door. In the mid 70s there was a Players No.6 cigarette machine outside, selling twenty cigarettes for 20p.|
|Lower Avenue||Joinery workplace||Behind Ladysmith Road post office. Closed at the same time as the Post Office in 2015.|
|Midway Terrace||Sutton dairy/grocer/greengrocer||Mr Sutton had a milk round.|
|Newcombe Terrace||Newcombe Dairy||Sold ice-lollies in the 1970s. On right hand corner of Newcombe Street, where the entrance was. See also 'Memories Of Heavitree'.|
|Shop||On left hand corner of Newcombe Street, where the entrance was. Opposite the dairy.|
|Normandy Road||Leylands Paints||Sold wallpaper and paint for some years. Originally a Drill Hall; the Home Guard used it during the war. Sold in the 1980s and converted into flats.|
|North Street||Moores pork butcher||Sold 'the best pies and pasties.'|
|Handyman||Opposite The Windsor Castle PH. 'I remember taking mowers, scissors and other tools to be sharpened up the little alley opposite the Windsor Castle. The old chap always used to do magic with coins for my kids. Lovely man.'|
|Oakfield Street||Barbers' shop||Run from the front room. The owner also ran a newspaper delivery service.|
|Park Place||Park Place Stores||Grocer + Off License, run by Mrs Stuckey.|
|Park Road||Stamps grocers||Number 25. On the left hand corner of Jubilee Road. 'They would deliver for you; I used to see people sat on a chair while they put the groceries in their bag for them. They did boxes of broken biscuits as well. Anything loose was wrapped in brown paper.'|
|Regent Square||Skinners grocers||Opened by 1886, probably closed at the start of, or during, World War II; became the only double-fronted house in the Square. Located at the bottom of the left side of the square, and numbered 62, the numbering of the premises is somewhat out of kilter with the rest of the square; number 61 is at the top right of the Square. See also page 37 of pdf.|
|Roseland Crescent||The Candy Shop||South Lawn Terrace end. Later moved to South Lawn Terrace and became Robinson's News. 'Rainbow sherbet in cone-shaped bag for 1d; fruit salads were 4 for 1d on way to school.'|
|Thackers||After this it was the Roseland Dairy, then Roseland Stores, selling groceries / greengrocery. Closed 1982. 'I used to deliver customers' grocery orders on Saturday mornings for 3/6 + tips. (1950-1953).' ' My mum used to get her shopping there, it took all afternoon!'|
|Magnet Stores||Opposite the other shops and turning into Roseland Avenue. Sold groceries, fruit and veg in the early 1960s.|
|Salters Road||A fish and chip shop + a grocers||Built in the 1930s at the junction with Peryam Crescent. It was initially two shops owned by the Pike family. The Co-op took over and converted the chip shop into a butchers, which they later closed when the two shops merged, and counter-service was replaced by self-service.|
|Wickhams paper shop||Opposite the grocers.|
|Chemist||Run by Mr Coneybeare, who apparently used to make his own tinctures on the premises. Opposite the grocers.|
|Tom the butchers||Opposite an orchard. 'I remember PC Gumm catching me scrumping in there and took me back home to Peryam Crescent. God I got a hiding!!!'|
|Dykes general store||Number 51. On the corner of Lethbridge Road. Previously Tootell's shop. 'I was remembering Tootells shop, when we were kids we always called it Tootell's Hill. Used to go there a lot, can remember being fascinated when the lady used to make 'cones' from paper for our sweets, feeling rich if I had a penny-worth instead of a farthing or ha'penny.'|
|Handyman store||Opposite Dykes.|
|Sivell Place||P Gupa||A chap who sold cheap car tyres.|
|Panel Beater Spray Workshop||Next door to P Gupa. Run by Steve Norman Plum.|
|South Lawn Terrace||Robinson's News||Was previously a video shop, Shauls bakery, hairdressers and gym.|
|Stuart Road||Birds grocers||Number 1. South Lawn Terrace end. Children used to return Corona bottles to top-up their pocket money.|
|Ropers||Number 53. First on the right coming in from Hanover Road.|
|Warwick Road||Courtney and Son butchers|
Churches Of Heavitree
Heavitree Parish Church
It is likely that a church has stood on the current site in Church Street since the late Saxon era, however the oldest surviving record is of its grant to Exeter Cathedral in 1152. The building was extensively rebuilt in the fifteenth century and restored in 1541.
A lithograph showing Heavitree Parish Church in 1842
After this, no major work took place until the nineteenth century, when population growth meant the building was no longer sufficient for its needs. The old fifteenth century red sandstone building was largely rebuilt between 1844 and 1846 at a cost of £3000 raised by subscription.
Only 2 years after the new building was consecrated however, the lower skirting of the pews and the flooring was found to be "in a state of putrescence". The church was closed for several months whilst rotting timber was replaced and a new concrete floor laid, but also due to the "noxious vapour from the bodies under the floor."
Due to a shortage of funds when the main part of the church was rebuilt, the tower wasn't replaced until 1887. Thus for around 40 years, the new church and the old tower existed alongside one another. A peal of eight bells replaced the original four in 1897 to commemorate Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee.
Heavitree Parish Church in 1880 showing the rebuilt church alongside the older tower
Within the sizeable churchyard stands the Heavitree Yew, the oldest tree in Exeter, which is probably over 500 years old. It is likely that this tree is formed of side-shoots from a much older tree felled at the time of the fifteenth century rebuilding of the church. Whether this was the head tree (heafod treow) beneath which the Saxon kings held court will never be known.
The Heavitree Yew alongside the old church
When the church tower was rebuilt in 1887, the Medieval gargoyles from the old tower were embedded in concrete around the base of the tree. In the early 1990s, having discovered the importance of the tree, Devon members of the International Tree Foundation removed the detritus to allow water to be fed down to the roots; ivy and dead branches were also trimmed back. Members now keep an eye on the tree to ensure it stays healthy.
In 2002, The Tree Council included the tree in their list of 50 'Great British Trees' in celebration of Queen Elizabeth II's golden jubilee; a plaque has since been added in recognition of this fact.
Heavitree Parish Records
The earliest surviving parish record is the baptism of Robert Knoll on 1st February 1556. Records of weddings and burials did not commence until a century later.
During the Civil War and the years following, parishes were subjected to ever-changing and confusing regulations from Parliament as regards the records they had to keep. For example, the Marriage and Registration Act of 1653 denied the Church the right to celebrate marriages and stipulated that clerics had no authority to keep parish registers or bury the dead.
The first surviving marriage record in Heavitree is in 1654. The following gives a taste of how people responded to the various Puritan laws:
Weddings 1654 7 1655 5 1656 6 1657 11 1658 38 Cromwell died 1659 39 1660 62 James II restored 1661 21 1662 22
It seems that either many marriages were not recorded when they occurred, or couples felt that a civil marriage had no standing in the eyes of God or their neighbours, and regularised the position as soon as they were able.Scroll to top of page
St Loyes Chapel
The ruins of St Loyes Chapel in Rifford Road are the remains of a chapel first recorded in 1387 and likely to have been consecrated the year before. It is dedicated to St Loye, a 7th century French Goldsmith who became Bishop of Noyau and was adopted as the patron saint of all metal workers.
The ruins of St Loyes Chapel in 2018
Worship probably ended or declined with the Reformation, and by 1607 part of the building was used as a house. By 1785 it was used as a stable. In the 1890s an attempt was made to restore the chapel but this failed. The ruins survive as an example of the local use of Heavitree Stone.Scroll to top of page
The Chapel Of St Clare
Although it has often been claimed that the chapel at Livery Dole is medieval in date and was dedicated to St Clarus, this is now known to be false; it was in fact built with the almshouses adjacent to it in 1592. It is possible that the chapel was built as a place where prayers were offered for the souls of persons executed at the nearby crossroads.
The chapel of St Clare alongside the sixteenth century almshouses in 1850
The building consists of a nave, of which the chancel is a continuation. The doorway is at the western end and the windows are filled with stained glass. It is built of Heavitree Stone, one of the few in the Parish, supported by buttresses. The tracery of the eastern window is a mixture of the late Decorated and Perpendicular styles and has probably been taken from a medieval building.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Congregational Church
In 1884 Exeter Congregationalists purchased Homefield House and its grounds for £798; Homefield House was formerly located on the corner of what is now Homefield Road.
In 1885 they opened a Mission Chapel in the gardens at a cost of £990 and seating 180. The memorial stone was laid in January of that year and bears witness to the fact that for 18 years hitherto a Mr Joseph Hayman had opened his house for public worship; Mr Hayman lived at Stafford Villas (now 83 Fore Street).
The 1889 OS map showing the Mission Chapel prior to extension.
Prospect Villas can be seen to the left, Homefield House and Brenda Villas to the right.
In 1902 Homefield House was demolished and a new church was built on the site at a cost of £4,000. This was at right angles to the original building, which was incorporated to the rear of the development. The new structure included a hall that seated 450, a lecture hall holding 120, and a basement hall. The foundation stone was laid on 29th September 1902, and the new church dedicated on 2nd June 1903.
Heavitree Congregational Church in 1907.
Prospect Villas can be seen to the left, Brenda Villas to the right above the railings of Homefield Place.
During World War II the basement was used as an air-raid shelter but was badly damaged in 1942 by enemy bombing. This also destroyed the adjacent Prospect Villas that once stood in Fore Street to the west of the church.
In 1972 the Congregational and Presbyterian Churches merged to form the United Reformed Church, by which the church is now known.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Catholic Church
Heavitree House, an early nineteenth century property in Fore Street, was purchased along with the adjoining land in about 1930 for the building of a Roman Catholic church.
The church was built at a cost of £15,000, and is located well back from the road. The foundation stone was laid in June 1931, whilst the church opened in May 1932. In spite of its positioning the structure is readily visible from Fore Street, and is a very striking one even by today's standards. It includes a portico of six marble columns, and a tower that houses a massive 4 ton bell, which at the time was the second largest in Devon, and caused quite a bit of local protest.
A pre-war image of the Catholic Church showing the full height of the tower
Although the tower currently stands at 60 foot high, it was originally stood at 90 foot. A direct hit during the Baedeker Raids of May 1942 caused serious structural damage to the tower and completely destroyed the neighbouring presbytery. The tower was never rebuilt to its former glory.
The Catholic Church in 2011 showing the shortened tower
Meanwhile, Heavitree House was renamed Rosary House by the church and was used as a school for a good number of years. When this closed it was initially used for other purposes by the church before being sold to raise funds. The building is still known by the same name and now houses City Vets.
Rosary House (formerly Heavitree House) is now home to City Vets, seen here in 2019
Heavitree Gospel Hall
In the early twentieth century, the Plymouth Brethren opened Heavitree Gospel Hall on the corner of Alpha Street, opposite where Shaul House is now. In 1935, the Conservative Rooms relocated from Fore Street to to their present home in Church Street. The church moved into the vacant premises and was renamed Ebenezer Gospel Hall. The Alpha Street site was later used as a Weslyan Chapel.
Enemy action in 1942 destroyed the Fore Street building along with others in the vicinity, namely 1-5 Sivell Place and those on the opposite side of Fore Street where the filling station now stands. Mr Alford, graciously opened his home at 'Eagle House', Salutary Mount, for Brethren services at this time.
After the war, the Brethren constructed a Nissan type hut meeting place on the current site, along with a car park where 1-5 Sivell Place had been. This was replaced in 1979 by the present building. The church is now known as Heavitree Evangelical Church.Scroll to top of page
Other Churches And Chapels
Mowbray Cottage, the attractive house opposite Meyer Court in Butts Road, entered non-conformist use as an independent, possibly Congregational chapel in 1833. By 1851 the premises appear to have been used by Wesleyan Methodists. It ceased to be used for religious purposes by 1860, and was converted into a private dwelling.
Mowbray Cottage in 2018
Hope Hall in Hope Road was built as a Sunday School by the Baptists in 1905. Apparently, the name of the road was changed from Muddy Lane at the same time. In 1931 they moved to new premises in Wonford Street.
Hope Hall in 2018
The Burnthouse Lane estate has had a number of chapels in the past:
- There was a Salvation Army chapel at the corner of Chestnut Avenue.
- In 1939 the Exeter City Mission built a hall on land now occupied by Wynstream School.
- There was a Brethren Gospel Hall on the Lidl site.
Education In Heavitree
Heavitree Parochial School
With the exception of the small charity school that existed in the eighteenth century, there was no provision for education in Heavitree prior to 1840. In that year, the Heavitree Parochial School was built using public subscriptions raised at the instigation of the local vicar of the day Arthur Atherley; it stood in Fore Street on the site of what is now the Co-op store.
The school was constructed on the site of a church house, the land for which was granted in 1516 by John Kelly, Lord of the Manor, to the vicar and others, on condition that they built a parish house and commemorated the souls of him and his ancestors. That building was described in 1823 as being "in tolerable condition, inhabited by paupers having been placed there by the parish officers." However by 1835, due to the increasing population of Heavitree, the vicar reported that the parish had no workhouse and that "the Poor House, which is very dilapidated, is capable of containing only one tenth of the poor." The building was soon freed by the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 which centralised the paupers in the St Thomas Union Workhouse.
Although the 1840 structure was a fairly substantial stone building consisting of one large room with a stepped floor type of gallery, reports indicate that the lighting of the school was unsatisfactory as the sills of the windows were too high up and cast shadows over many of the desks. Ventilation was not good and the one stove was insufficient to warm the school. The playground was enclosed by high walls and was rather sunless.
The 1889 OS map showing the site of the original Heavitree Parochial School
In 1856, St Luke's College Committee of Management entered into an agreement with the vicar and the trustees, which gave the management of the school over to the training college. The school was then run by the Normal Master of the College and was to be a practising school for the students of St Luke's. This continued until 1872 when the college opened their own school. At the time the arrangement was made there were 80 pupils. However, some of the children travelled from country districts, which was a cause of poor attendance in wet weather during summer and autumn terms. Many left school at the age of 9 or 10.
A plot of land on South Lawn Terrace (then still known as Whipton Lane), was donated to St Michael's Church by Augustus Frederick George Warwick, Baron Poltimore, for the building of a new school. The school, a replacement for the Fore Street building, opened to boys on 29th September 1871. The girls, who had hitherto been educated in the old church house in Church Street, a site occupied by a former vicarage and where the Rifford Room now stands, followed a few years later in 1875. The school was known simply as Heavitree School.
The side of the South Lawn Terrace site in 1910 (viewed from the adjacent footpath)
Internally, the building was divided in two, each half having a separate entrance. Similarly, the external plot was divided with separate play areas so, at school, boys and girls never met. A pair of semi-detached houses were provided for the Head teachers. These houses were used more recently to house Heavitree library and a dental surgery. The former was demolished along with the Victorian school buildings in around 2006 when the school was rebuilt as part of an Exeter-wide modernisation programme; the latter remains.
Meanwhile, the original Parochial School building in Fore Street continued as Heavitree Infant School. The house next door, called Lyndale, was an addition to the school in 1895 as the population increased. The school finally closed in 1937 when pupils were transferred to the restructured South Lawn Terrace site. The buildings remained until 1967 when they were demolished making way for the current retail premises. In the interim, the building housed Thorn's Garage, and prior to that it had been successively used as a chair store and a community centre.
|Site of the original Heavitree Parochial School in Fore Street|
Returning to the South Lawn Terrace site ... Over the years the school has been restructured or renamed a number of times:
- 1937: the two schools were modernised and re-modelled into a single building. Infants transferred from the Fore Street site. Renamed Heavitree Mixed and Infants School.
- 1975: the school became Heavitree First + Middle School. Pupils over 12 years of age moved to high schools in the area.
- 1997: renamed St Michael's Church of England First + Middle School, marking the school's close and continuing links with Heavitree's parish church over the centuries.
- 2006: as part of a restructuring of all Exeter schools, the Victorian buildings were demolished and replaced with modern buildings further back from the road. The school was further renamed St Michael's Church of England Primary School.
- 2013: the school became a self-governing academy and was renamed St Michael's Church of England Primary Academy.
The Origin Of The Name Ladysmith
In 1812 following the siege of the Spanish city of Badajos, a young infantry captain, Harry Smith, met and married the beautiful fourteen year-old Spanish noblewoman Juana Maria de los Dolores de Leon.
After a long military career he became Sir Harry Smith, and while he was Governor of Cape Town the town of Ladysmith was named in honour of his wife, Lady Smith.
|Lt. General Sir Harry Smith, 1788-1860||Juana Maria de los Dolores de Leon|
In the winter of 1899/1900 during the Boer War, the British garrison at Ladysmith was besieged for several months by a large Boer army. When it was finally relieved the British public celebrated for several days and many places, including Heavitree, named streets after the scene of a British triumph. A few months later Pretoria was the scene of another British victory.
An illustration of the Boer War, 1899-1902
There are currently two schools in Pretoria Road, Heavitree - Ladysmith Infants and Ladysmith Junior. The original school catering for ages 5-12, built on the current Infants School site, was named Heavitree Council School. It opened in February 1908.
The school subsequently adopted the name of the road on which it stood apparently because local people had been calling it Ladysmith School for some years.
Colonel Vaughan (chairman of the Heavitree Urban District Council) officiates
at the flag unfurling ceremony at Heavitree Council Schools, 1908
Due to the school leaving-age being raised in 1921 from 12 to 14, and the increase in Heavitree's population as further housing was built, it became clear that additional accommodation was required, and in 1936 the foundation stone of what is now the Junior School was laid.
This second building, on the opposite side of Pretoria road, was built to Secondary Modern standards, and was able to accommodate additional pupils when the school leaving-age was raised again in 1948 to 15.
In 1974, following further education reforms raising the leaving-age to 16, Ladysmith Secondary Modern School merged with St James School for girls, Beacon Heath, Exeter. The original Council School became Ladysmith First School and the 1936 building became the Middle School.
|1936 building||2017 replacement|
In 2006, as part of a reorganisation of the school structure in Exeter, the First School was renamed to an Infant School and the Middle School to a Junior School.
2017 saw the demolition of the 1936 buildings to be replaced by new buildings further to the north on the same site. The original 1908 buildings remain, supplemented by additional out-buildings added at various times.Scroll to top of page
Bramdean School was opened in 1908 for two scholars in one house, by Mr A Clements Walters. He retired in 1935 after seeing the school expand, both numerically and physically. By now it occupied two joined detached houses (known as Richmond Lodge) of a group of four; the school field was located on the opposite side of the road.
The four houses, collectively known as Richmond Grove, were built in 1834 on land bought from the Baring estate by Edward Eardley, an Exeter Glass and china merchant, who was also involved in the building of properties at Heavitree Park. Richmond Grove lost its name in 1939 when the thoroughfare on which it stood was numbered and named Homefield Road.
The school saw further expansion over the years, with additional buildings added in the grounds. Latterly, poor performance and falling numbers led to the school's closure in April 2020 for financial reasons.
|Bramdean School buildings c.1920|
The building of houses at Richmond Grove were soon followed by three others around the corner in Bicton Place. The middle of these three, named Belmont (Collingwood House from the 1880s) was built in 1835, and used as a private school when Miss Elizabeth Clarence moved there from St Leonards. The 1851 census shows Miss Clarence living there with her two spinster daughters (all school mistresses), twelve female pupils aged eight to seventeen, and three servants.Scroll to top of page
The Northbrook rises in springs on Stoke Hill. One tributary runs through Mincinglake Valley Park, Polsloe and Hamlin Lane Playing Field, another through Whipton; the two tributaries converge in Vaughan Road. After crossing the Honiton Road, the Northbrook continues its way through Wonford and Ludwell Valley Park to join the River Exe at Northbrook Park and the historic Countess Wear Mill. Its upper reaches are sometimes known as Mincinglake Brook or Whipton Brook; locals know it as The Panny. The origin of this name is much disputed but some say it comes from Indian soldiers billeted at Wyvern Barracks in the First World War, as the Hindi word for water is 'paani'.
In the nineteenth century and earlier, the Northbrook would have been clean and full of fish. Although it still hosts a good deal of wildlife, it is classified as being in a "poor" state by the Environment Agency. The reason for its condition is unknown, but several factors must surely have a part to play: the Mincinglake Valley was utilised as an official tip for a some years; a great deal of residential development has taken place around the brook; concrete banking has been built in places; and the brook is culverted for considerable stretches in two places - Beacon Heath to Polsloe Bridge, and Vaughan Road to Woodwater Lane.
|Heavitree Bridge||Widening Honiton Road in 1932||Cottages near Heavitree Bridge|
Until the 1930s, the Honiton Road crossed the Northbrook at Heavitree Bridge, roughly where Sweetbrier Lane and Rifford Road now meet the Honiton Road. The bridge would have been narrow, similar to those seen today at Stoke Canon and Bickleigh. As traffic volumes rose during the 1920s, it became increasingly obvious something had to be done to improve the crossing.
In 1932, the bridge was removed and the watercourse covered, as part of the widening of the Honiton Road as far as Gallows Corner. Flooding was a regular occurrence around the bridge; even today after a heavy burst of rain the manhole covers lift as the culvert fails to cope with the volume of water.
|Maps of the Heavitree Bridge area|
There used to be quite a good community in this area – Birchy Barton Farm, the quarry close by, cottages, and even a pub, The Bridge Inn, until the landlord committed suicide in 1866. A few of the cottages near to the site of the bridge remain, but all traces of the bridge itself have gone. Despite this, many still refer to the area as Heavitree Bridge.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree United Football Club
Founded in 1885 as a church team, Heavitree United Football Club is one of the oldest amateur football clubs in Devon.
In the early years matches were played on a pitch where the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Heavitree now stands. After World War II the club returned to a pitch in Heavitree Pleasure Ground, sometimes playing in front of a crowd of several thousand people. In the early 1950s the club moved to its present ground at Wingfield Park.
From 1976 to 1999 they played in the Western Football League, their highest level. These days they are part of the Devon and Exeter Football League.
Heavitree Parish Church football team, 1900
The opening of the barracks in 1804 was part of the government’s reluctant response to widespread criticism of the poor standard of soldiers’ accommodation. Even these barracks lacked accommodation for married soldiers – families being separated from other soldiers by a blanket hanging across the room.
The barracks were originally simply called Artillery Barracks to distinguish them from the Cavalry Barracks (Higher Barracks). In 1861 they were renamed Topsham Barracks, and in 1964 the present name was adopted. The wyvern is the traditional dragon of Wessex.
The front of Topsham Barracks
From 1804 to 1815 the barracks housed a number of different Royal Artillery companies. From 1816 to 1867 they were occupied by various cavalry regiments. Infantry units occupied the barracks from 1867 to 1871, and then Artillery regiments returned until it became a training depot in 1944.
The barracks had also been the depot of the Devonshire Regiment since before the First World War. They ceased being a base for active regiments in 1974.
The Royal Artillery, Topsham Barracks
Heavitree In The Second World War
Air Raids On Heavitree
Exeter didn't suffer in World War II to the same degree as some of the larger cities such as London, Coventry and Liverpool.
The first bomb to cause any damage in Heavitree crashed through the roof of 48 Normandy Road on 6th September 1940. Although it failed to explode, it caused the front of the house to collapse into the street. Fortunately no one was killed.
A map showing bombs dropped on Heavitree in the Second World War
There were further air-raids in Exeter during 1940 and 1941, but none as sustained or severe as that on just three nights in April + May 1942. Over this period, Hitler's bombers tried their best to destroy 'The Jewel of the West' as part of The Baedeker Raids, a series of retaliatory raids on historic English cities following allied bombing of the German city of Lübeck in March 1942.
More than 250 people, including 50 Heavitree residents, lost their lives during these raids. Many hundreds more were injured or traumatised, and there was extensive damage to buildings. In Heavitree, properties between the Catholic and Congregational Churches were destroyed, as were 1-5 Sivell Place, and others where the Tesco garage now stands.
Victory In Europe Day
When Germany signed an unconditional surrender to allied forces on 7th May 1945, it brought to an end nigh on six years of war in Europe. The following day was declared a national holiday to mark Victory in Europe Day (VE Day); the next day (9th May) was also a national holiday.
Jean Smith of Regent Square recalls:
"As it became certain that the war was coming to an end, the women got together to organise street parties. My mother did a raffle every Saturday morning with items being donated from local businesses that she canvassed, the money going towards food, etc. I was trusted to go around selling from a book of cloakroom tickets. I was most upset the time my number came up and I wasn't allowed to have the prize. I asked why I was allowed to buy a ticket with my pocket money but not take the prize; I must have been about nine. As for the VE and VJ parties, trestle tables were laid out along the bottom; we would have had rolls, sandwiches, fairy cakes and lots of lemonade. By the time of the latter, some of the serving men had arrived back. Bill Allen, the milkman, had served in the Royal Navy. Harold Miller, who got married to Winnie from number 7 at the start of the war, had been in the Signals and served in Syria for a lot of the time. His daughter Rita remembers him telling her bedtime stories of what he experienced in the war."
Everyone listened intently as King George VI congratulated the troops for carrying out their duties with "valour and distinction," adding "How unbounded is our admiration for the courage and determination which, under wise leadership, have brought them to their goal of complete and crushing victory."
Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced "We may allow ourselves a brief period of rejoicing; but let us not forget for a moment the toil and efforts that lie ahead. Japan with all her treachery and greed, remains unsubdued. We must now devote all our strength and resources to the completion of our task, both at home and abroad."
Many had lost loved ones or seen them suffer life-changing injuries on the battlefield. Yet now that victory had been declared, there was a feeling of tremendous relief following such a lengthy period of suffering and hardship. In spite of food shortages and rationing, the whole community rallied round, and street parties were held just about everywhere, with celebrations widely continuing well into the night.
|Street parties celebrating the end of World War II|
The war in Asia and the Pacific regions was to continue for another three months, and see atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, before Japan finally surrendered on 14th August 1945. Again the following day was declared a national holiday in the form of Victory in Japan Day (VJ Day), heralding further cause for celebration.
A Happy Ending For One Young Couple
In 1939, at the start of the war, Joseph Terry lived with his parents in Wardrew Road, St Thomas.
He joined the Royal Signals, and after spending time in Egypt due to a political rather than a military decision, he was one of the thousands of young men sent to aid Greece against the Germans. In 1941 he was captured in a boat off the island of Kitheria. He said that he was very grateful to the Greek people who hid him during the day from the Germans and smuggled him at night in small boats from island to island.
This photo was taken in Exeter High Street. The young soldier is Joseph Terry. We believe the man with whom he is shaking hands to be the mayor. The couple are his parents.
He was transported to Austria where he was held in Stalag 18a. For six months Mr and Mrs Terry didn’t know what had happened to their only child; eventually they received a letter from the Red Cross to inform them of Joe’s fate. Meanwhile in Southend-on-Sea, Essex, the girls of the local grammar school had been asked to write letters to troops being held as POW. A letter written by one young student, Marjorie Phillips, found its way to Joe. They continued to write to each other and even when Joe was liberated and returned home to Exeter, they continued to correspond. In 1947 Marjorie and Joe married and spent their life together living in Heavitree. Unfortunately, Joe died in 2015, but Marjorie continues to live in Kingsway, Heavitree.
Children Not Forgotten
Members of the community that were too young to play an active role in the war were not forgotten for the position they held. Every school-child in the country received this letter of commendation in 1946 from King George VI.
A letter to school-children from King George VI
Heavitree Social Centre
Built in the 1820s in the grounds of Heavitree Park, and readily visible from East Wonford Hill, is an attractive Grade II listed property, originally known as Park Villa then from the turn of the century as The Knoll.
Soon after World War II ended and servicemen were returning home, the Government was keen on neighbourhoods starting social centres for which it would give grants.
As a result of VE and VJ tea parties held in the South Lawn Terrace area, the organisers, having ended up with a small profit, formed the 'Heavitree Social Committee' and started raising money to buy a centre. It ran weekly events - whist drives, barn dances and a youth club - in the old Parochial School hall where the Co-op now stands.
Park Villa / The Knoll / Wingfield Park that now houses Heavitree Social Club in 2018
The Knoll came on the market and Mrs Ouseley of South Lawn Terrace and Hilda Mitchelmore visited the current owners, Misses Wingfield. They agreed to sell the property to the Committee on the understanding that their name was kept alive in Heavitree. This was duly agreed, and thus the Knoll became known as Wingfield Park, and home to Heavitree Social Centre.
Applications were made for Government grants and a bank loan, and a constitution was drawn up. Alderman C. Hill (Hill, Palmer and Edwards) became president, chairman was Councillor B Howe (Devon Meat), and Mr Partridge (newsagent) served as treasurer. To help pay off the loan, the Committee organised the annual Heavitree Carnival which ran until the 1980s.
In the early 1950s Heavitree United AFC adopted Wingfield Park as their new home. They remain there today, as does the Social Centre although in 2016 it was re-branded Heavitree Social Club.Scroll to top of page
Famous Heavitree Residents
Richard Hooker was born in Heavitree in the Spring of 1554. Along with Sir Walter Raleigh, he is often referred to as being one of the two most influential men to have been born in Devon.
Although he is the lesser known of the two, he was instrumental in the development of Anglicanism, in ensuring that it took a middle road between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. His defence of every aspect of Anglican worship was acknowledged by Elizabeth I.
A statue of Richard can still be seen in the grounds of Exeter Cathedral, and a special prayer is said each year on the anniversary of his death.
The statue of Richard Hooker on Cathedral Green, Exeter in 2013
John Sampson was born at South Tawton in 1836, but lived at Spreyton near Bow as a child. On leaving education, Sampson initially worked for the Great Western Railway at Churston, South Devon, before moving to Exeter and setting up in business. Over time he became an eminent businessman owning a tin mine, a brewery + The Plymouth & Stonehouse Gas Company.
Sampson built a kiln on Polsloe Road on land attached to the City Workhouse, before transferring his business in around 1870 to a recently purchased piece of land between Polsloe Road and Ladysmith Road. Part of this land was used for his brickworks, which became his chief source of income at a time when much house building was taking place in the area. He employed a large work-force of men and boys, and amassed a considerable fortune.
Sampson acquired a good deal of property - including that in Heavitree, Wonford, Fore Street and St Thomas - reportedly becoming one of the richest men in Exeter area at the time. In 1897, he was listed as: 'John Sampson: brick & tile manufacturer, proprietor of patent vans for removing furniture, agent for London cement, glazed pipes & the Dorset Lime Company’.
Sampson lived in the Polsloe Road area of Heavitree. In 1871, he lived at ‘Floriston Villas’, South Avenue, but later moved to in a fourteen room villa named 'Melrose House', Polsloe Road, on the corner of the lane leading to his brickworks. This lane became known as Sampson’s Lane, a name which it retains to this day; it now acts as a thoroughfare from Polsloe Road to Pretoria Road. To the north of 'Melrose House' was a plot of pasture land (used for housing in the 1960s) and four fourteen room villas that Sampson sold to Mr Price, Mrs Morgan, Mr Quick and a Mr Hussan respectively.
Sampson's fourteen room villa, 'Melrose House' (left),
at the entrance to Sampson's Lane, in 2016
Sampson married twice. His first wife, Jane, died in 1893. He had 2 children by her – both sons. They died at an early age after reaching manhood. Understandably, their death was a terrible blow to Sampson. He married again in 1906; his second wife out-lived him.
Despite his wealth, Sampson had an affinity for poorer folk and filled many public offices:
- He was on the St Thomas Board of Guardians and overseer to the poor.
- A Heavitree parishioner from 1864, he displayed an active interest in Church matters.
- He was a church-warden of Heavitree Parish Church between 1881 and 1904.
- He was, for many years, a member of Heavitree Parish Council.
- He was member of the Heavitree Urban District Council, and as an ardent Conservative was a prominent figure at Conservative Meetings, exhibiting a keen interest in the City contest
(Exeter’s proposal for Heavitree subsummation – a proposition Heavitree residents resisted for many years).
- He was a generous supporter of the West of England Institution for the Deaf & Dumb,
being on the House Committee at the time of his death.
- A regular follower of the East Devon Hounds.
- A prominent Freemason.
|Maps showing Manor Cottages off Fore Street||Frontage|
|Early 1950s||Early 1960s||Early 1970s||2016|
In his life-time, Sampson gave a number gifts to Heavitree:
- A piece of ground enabling a road to be built connecting Ladysmith Road to Goldsmith Street, enabling a through-route between old and new Heavitree.
- Land for the building of Heavitree Council School in Ladysmith Road.
- Four houses named ‘Manor Cottages’, to be used as almshouses in Heavitree.
[Maps show these were to the rear of the present-day 120 / 120a Fore Street. The almshouses were demolished in the 1960s, along with the original 120 Fore Street (42 Fore Street prior to re-numbering in the mid to late 1950s)].
[The 1950s and 1960s was a period of much change in Fore Street, e.g. demolition of Ellis’ Place, Shrubbery Place and Gordon Place, and subsequent addition of car parks; relocation of toilets from under North Street to their current location next the Royal Oak; replacement of the North Street police call-box with a police sub-station next to the United Reformed Church; re-numbering of properties.]
A block of apartments, Manor Court, has subsequently been built further to the east in Fore Street.
- Two houses in Regent Square (nos. 51 and 52) which were rented out to provide income for the upkeep of the aforementioned almshouses.
|The announcement of John Sampson's death, 19th Jan 1910|
Sampson died quite unexpectedly at 'Melrose House' aged 75 on the morning of 19th January 1910, after collapsing whilst readying himself for work. A servant called for relative and employee, Tom Shute, of ‘Discombe Villas’, 56 Polsloe Road, who in turn summoned local physician, Dr Wolfe, who ‘pronounced life extinct’. It is believed Sampson died due to a fatty degeneration of the heart.
In his will, Sampson:
- Bequeathed £200 to the vicar and church-wardens of Heavitree Parish Church, to be used for gifts to the poor, and a further £200 for the provision of a parish nurse.
- Left a legacy to install a stained-glass window and a clock in the tower of Heavitree Parish Church. The clock, given to the Church at Christmas 1910, can be found inside and above the west entrance of the Church. It's not known if the stained-glass window was ever installed.
|John Sampson memorial plaque & clock, Heavitree Parish Church|
Sampson's assets were sold by auction at The Half Moon Inn on 22nd September 1910:
- The brickworks + associated buildings and cottages.
- 13 acres of land for building.
- 'Melrose House' and 3 other dwellings named ‘Polsloe Villas’.
The auction map of Sampson's property, 22nd Sep 1910
There are no other records of the existence of the brickworks after its sale. The land was later utilised for the playing fields of Ladysmith Boys’ School built in the 1930s (Ladysmith Junior School following education reforms in the early 1970s).
Sampson's house, 'Melrose House' (40 Polsloe Road), still exists but is now named ‘Rockhaven’. The adjacent property, 38 Polsloe Road, was destroyed by a direct hit during enemy action of as part of the Baedeker Raids on 4th May 1942; it has since been rebuilt.
Express & Echo (19th Jan 1910), Exeter Memories, old-maps.co.uk, 1871 census, Mrs Ann Yorath
Dame Irene Vanbrugh
Dame Irene Vanbrugh was a famous actress and film star who was born in the vicarage at Heavitree on 2nd December 1872, the fifth of six children and the youngest girl. Her elder sister, Violet, born in the City centre, but lived in Heavitree during her early years, was also a very successful actress. Their father, the Reverend Reginald Barnes, had became vicar of Heavitree in 1869.
Irene made her debut on the West End stage whilst still in her teens, working almost continually until her death in 1949. She starred in the first run of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Ernest, also appearing many times on New York's Broadway.
Dame Irene Vanbrugh
Dame Irene had leading roles in a number of major films before the Second World War, sharing the billing with the likes of Douglas Fairbanks and Marlene Dietrich. She was one of the driving forces behind the formation of The Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts. Her youngest brother, Kenneth, was director there for over 40 years; he named its playhouse the Vanbrugh Theatre in honour of his sisters.
In 2014, the Exeter Civic Society installed a blue plaque commemorating the sisters, on the walkway between Roman Walk and Southernhay, at a spot close to where Violet was born.
A further link to the Barnes family is the Gordon Lamp, at the junction of Fore Street and Magdalen Road. Reverend Barnes was a close friend of General Charles Gordon. He was so affected by the General’s death at the siege of Khartoum that he paid for the lamp and its installation in his memory.Scroll to top of page
Clifford Bastin was born in New North Road, Exeter on 14th March 1912 and attended Heavitree Council School (now Ladysmith Infant School).
His footballing skills were recognised at an early age playing for England's schoolboys team and making his debut for Exeter when he was 16. His potential was brought to the attention of Herbert Chapman, the manager who was destined to turn Arsenal football club into one of the leading clubs in the world.
Clifford 'boy' Bastin - Exeter, Arsenal & England footballer
Dick was born in 1932 at his parents' house - 25 East Avenue, Heavitree; his grandparents lived next door. His father Charles and grandfather James were cabinet makers and had a workshop in Lower Avenue. Subsequently they set up a new workshop on their land in East Avenue. The wooden hut still stands beside the footpath running down to Lower Avenue. It is an interesting piece of local history as it previously was a World War I barrack room at Wyvern Barracks. On the other side of the path down to Lower Avenue there used to be a market garden run by the Dingle family. They lived at 32 East Avenue, and had a horse and cart which used to go round the Avenues selling vegetables.
Dick followed the family tradition of cabinet making by getting a five year apprenticeship with Brocks who had a shop and factory in King Street. Once qualified, he worked there for a few years until it closed. At this point he decided to set up his own business with Ron Sloman and Stan Hanford. They rented workshop space from the Dingle family in the grounds of 32 East Avenue, trading as 'Manley, Sloman and Hanford', employing a couple of apprentices and an upholsterer, polisher and carpet layer. They got a lot of work from the County Council laying lino and carpets in schools. When Dick married, he bought a plot of land (a former tennis court) behind his parents' house (25 East Avenue). He built a bungalow and lived there until the chance came up to buy number 32 (where is his workshop already was). The workshop is still going strong now trading just as 'Manley and Sloman'.
For many, life as a busy craftsman would be enough. However, Dick was an outstanding rugby player; he started playing whilst at Hele's School and represented Devon Colts. A strong forward, he joined Exeter, made his debut away to Bristol, went on to become club captain and played there for 15 years. While on National Service he won two Army Cup winners medals - the second being played in Hanover, Germany in 1954. He was capped by Devon sixty times. In 1958 Devon beat Yorkshire to win the County Championships, one of the great events of Dick's career. He also played for the Barbarians on thirteen occasions.
Dick's greatest claim to fame was that he played in all four games when England won the Home International Championship in 1963. His caps came late in his career as Dick was 30 when he made his debut against Wales at Cardiff Arms Park. England won 13-6 and also beat France 6-5 and Scotland 10-8. The other game away to Ireland was notable as it was the last 0-0 draw in an International; the weather was terrible and everyone got really bogged down. Dick was offered the chance to tour New Zealand with the England rugby team later in 1963 but turned it down as he was so busy with his Heavitree workshop. I don't have any regrets. That's just the way it was in those days. I had a job to do.
We can all be very proud of this true son of Heavitree who represented his country whilst staying true to his craft and his roots.Scroll to top of page
The Hoare Family
The Hoare family lived at 27 Church Terrace, Heavitree for a number of years until around the start of the Second World War. They played a significant part in the development of the Express and Echo for over 70 years.
Sam Hoare (d. 1947), was the paper's first works manager/overseer, recruited from the Bideford Gazette by Sir James Owen when the Echo was launched in 1904. He remained in this post until his retirement in 1937.
Sam’s two sons, Marcus Cecil Bradfored Hoare (known generally as Cec) and Eric George Rounsfell Hoare (born in 1911 at 27 Church Terrace), both joined the paper as 15-year-old schoolboys and gave 50 years’ service before retirement.
Cecil became editor and Eric sports editor, retiring in 1968 and 1976 respectively.
Cecil was at one time chairman of the City Rowing Club. His war service included spells in the Home Guard, and as a war correspondent while he was in a reserved occupation and still editing the paper.
Eric, Sam & Cecil Hoare
Eric served in the 4th Devons in Gibraltar and with the King's African Rifles in Kenya.
Eric was a keen cricketer, playing pre-war for Heavitree CC, which was disbanded in September 1939, and later for St James' CC, both of which had grounds, along with Christchurch CC, at Wonford House, until the hospital expansion. St James' are now Topsham St James', whilst Christchurch folded.
Eric took over 800 wickets for Heavitree who were highly-successful in the 1930s. He combined his playing career with writing, under the pen-name ‘Willow’, for the Express and Echo.
Eric’s early sporting success came at Ladysmith School where he played football alongside Clifford Bastin. They played for Exeter and District Schools together with Ladysmith not surprisingly very successful and known as a "wonder team".
The family tradition at the Express and Echo continued when Eric's son, Philip, now living in Stamford, Lincolnshire, joined the paper in 1960. In his four years there, he covered amateur football in the city and has happy memories of watching Heavitree United's first team.
Philip’s Heavitree connections include attending Exeter School, and playing cricket for St James'. He holds Heavitree CC's last scorebook, photos and medals, as well as his father's war diaries which he has transcribed.Scroll to top of page
Neighbourhood Watch 1831 Style
Helping convict thieves could be a lucrative business in the nineteenth century. Documents held at the Devon Heritage Centre provide details and give great insight into the types of crime that concerned our essentially rural parish at the time.
A handbill dated October 1831 states that "Rewards will be paid by the parishioners of Heavitree on the conviction of any person or persons, who shall have stolen any fruit, vegetables, shrubs, gates, fences, poultry, or other property belonging to any person in the parish."
If the offence was committed during the day the reward was 5 shillings, and 10 shillings if at night "between sunset and sun rising."
The notice also stated that 10 shillings would be paid on the conviction of anyone for "housebreaking, or entering and stealing" in the daytime and 20 shillings if was at night.
Applications had to be made to the Overseer of the Poor. The scheme obviously had some impact for another document is an 1832 receipt for 20 shillings paid out by the Overseer for "4 rewards on the conviction of 4 persons for stealing apples."Scroll to top of page
Disorderly Houses In Heavitree
Local resident, Val Hawker, has shared the story of her great grandmother, Ellen Coles.
She was born Ellen Elizabeth Manley at Cullompton in 1860. She married Harry Coles in 1884 and had seven children. I presume all went well until Harry’s death in 1901, but that’s when it all went a bit pear-shaped. We next hear of her when she was taken to court on 13th January 1903, appearing before Chairman of Magistrates, Mr E F Studd, at Wonford Petty Sessions.
The Exeter Flying Post of 17th January 1903 reports: "Ellen Coles, of Heavitree, was sentenced to three months hard labour for keeping disorderly houses [brothels] at 2 Sivell Place and 7 Ellis Place, Heavitree, during December. The Chairman said the case was 'the worst they had ever tried.' He commended PC Rowland and all who had assisted in bringing the prisoner to book."
Val’s research reveals that Ellen was again in court a year later for assisting in another brothel in Cheeke Street, Exeter. This time the case was dismissed. I catch up with her again in the 1911 census where she is a domestic in Tiverton workhouse. Here she remained until her death from heart failure in April 1920; she was only 59.
Of course, life was particularly difficult for Ellen’s children. Two of her daughters were sent to Canada, one with Barnardos and the other through the Salvation Army. One son drowned off Plymouth Hoe and another was killed in World War I. Thankfully, my grandmother survived until the mid-1970s.
By amazing co-incidence, at the same time as Val was passing on this family history, the Society was contacted by a researcher with an interest in Ellis Place (sometimes known as Ellis’s Place). This was a row of cottages, now demolished, behind where the Co-op now stands; the electricity sub-station to the rear of the Co-op still bears the name Ellis’s Place. It turns out the street had a further story to tell.
The researcher was investigating the murder in 1949 of Doreen Messenger, of Meadow Way, Heavitree. The man convicted of the murder, Sidney Archibald Chamberlin, lived in Ellis Place. Amazingly he also lived at number 7; the same property that had been a brothel back in 1902. Chamberlin was hung at Winchester Prison on 28th July 1949.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree is extremely lucky to have a complete range of post boxes, from the outset of the postal system to the present day. It’s another part of our heritage that deserves not to be forgotten.
Before post boxes, sending letters could be difficult. Lady Patterson of 4 Baring Place wrote in her diary on 14th July 1832: “I did not know how to convey my letter to Exeter, as the servants were so busy, so gave it to the butcher’s boy. I hope he will take care of it.”
|Victorian postbox||Edward VII postbox|
The first post box to be set up in the United Kingdom was in Carlisle in 1853. Boxes started to spread across the country during the rest of Queen Victoria’s reign. Having distinctive VR markings, we are lucky to have some of these in Heavitree including, for example, at Regents Park.
In Victorian times boxes were cleared seven times a day on weekdays and twice a day on Sundays.
Edward VII only reigned for nine years (1901-10) but again he is well represented in Heavitree. A good example is outside Livery Dole almshouses. The boxes are marked ER with a small VII by the lettering.
|George V postbox||Edward VIII postbox|
We also have several George V (1910-36) boxes locally. The boxes from his reign just have GR. This causes some confusion as some of these were also used when George VI (1936-52) came to the throne. Later VI was added to the GR on boxes. There is a good example of one of these in School Lane, just off Topsham Road.
In between the two Georges, we had the extremely short reign of Edward VIII (1936). Only about 160 post boxes were produced with his lettering and numerals, but we do have one in Heavitree! It stands at the corner of Peryam Crescent and Woodwater Lane – a real rarity.
|George VI postbox||Elizabeth II postbox|
We now, of course, have the distinctive ER II markings on the boxes set up during the reign of our current Queen, Elizabeth II.
Keep an eye out as you walk around Heavitree and check in whose reign each post box was erected.Scroll to top of page
Memories Of Heavitree
Heavitree Dolls' Hospital
A number of people have memories of a Dolls’ Hospital in Fore Street, Heavitree in the 1950s.
It was inside a shop called ‘The Topaz’, a newsagents / confectioners owned by Mr Hollis. It occupied the building that is now Corals, and was next to Dr Tracy and Dr Lamb’s surgery in Homefield Place.
One person remembers it having a large ice-cream cone outside. Her mother would meet her from school every Wednesday (half day) and buy her an ice-cream there.
One lady recalls taking her dolly there, and her being put on a shelf with a goodly number of others lined up waiting to be repaired.
A bear with a broken off head; a doll with perished elastic, and thus whose limbs had fallen off; a 'Tiny Tears'; a 'Chatty Cathy' - were all patients at the hospital over the years.Scroll to top of page
These are 4 photos of me taken in the late 1960s outside Roseland Dairy which was at no.6 Newcombe Terrace, on the corner of Newcombe Street. The front of the house looked straight down Hamlin Lane towards Polsloe, the shop entrance itself was in Newcombe Street.
|Roseland Dairy, 6 Newcombe Terrace in the late 1960s|
My parents ran the dairy until about 1969. My mother used to deliver bottled milk around the nearby streets using a converted pram. Incidentally, here was another Roseland Dairy in later years located in Fore Street, Heavitree, but there is no connection.
My Grandmother lived in Beacon Lane and was the cleaner in the Heavitree United Reformed Church.
Cross Park Terrace
I thought the attached may be of interest for the land my house was eventually built on. The auction notification was obtained from the British Newspaper Archive.
|Auction advert 6th May 1885||1915|
Rosary House School
I was there from the age of five until I was eleven. I was extremely happy there and I found the nuns very kind despite the fact that my family were not Catholics.
The large entrance hall was in a Victorian tiled pattern of shades of terracotta, blue and white. In these days at Rosary House there was a class taken by Miss Beck to the left of the entrance hall, and to the right was the BIG room where assemblies, P.E., plays and other activities took place. Behind was the kitchen where Sister Camelia was in charge; to the left of this, under the stairs were the cloakrooms, toilet and back entrance. There was a student teacher in charge, but I can't remember her name.
Up the grand staircase, to the left was what I think must have been the nuns' quarters. I know Sister Superior's room was there. Dead ahead was a large statue of the Virgin Mary. To the left of this was a row of classrooms. Sister Sebastian's was the first in the row, she took the older children. Sister St John was in the middle, took the lower juniors, and at the front of the house was Sister St Alphie's infant class.
Each doorway had a place to dip one's finger in holy water and cross oneself (strange to a non-Catholic child). The classrooms had a picture of a 'stairway to heaven' where if you brought a penny (old money 1d) your paper image could rise a step upwards until eventually your 'paper child' reached heaven.
Sister Sebastian's class c. 1949:
L-R Standing: Elaine Cruchet, Jill Hayte, Rosemary Wall, Valerie Parker, Anne Collins, Sister Superior, Beryl Reid, Sister Sebastian, Beryl O'Shea, Unknown, Mary Hodges, Unknown, Monica ?, Unknown, Alisha Ramsdon.
Kneeling: Janet ?, Heather Roxburgh, Judith Bridle, Bridget Matthews, Anne Milne, Josephine ?, Hilary ?, Hazel Smith, Geraldine Roberts, Brenda Lewis, Janet ?, Jennifer Pepperel, Cynthia Kirk.
The unnamed girls to the right in the back row were a year older than Rosemary.
On various days we went to a service in the Sacred Heart Church. I can remember being taken back to the school feeling faint from the cold and being given the old fashioned 'SOL VALATILE' by Sister Camelia in her warm kitchen. Not a lot of heating available with wartime fuel rationing.
There were various places to play at the back of the house, but in the summer we had the joys of the field to the side of the house and behind the church. This was also used for fêtes. The nuns were excellent at craft-work and made lovely things from very little, as during wartime and for some time afterwards, everything was on ration.
Occasionally we went to Palace Gate School by bus from Heavitree to Exeter Centre for 1d (one old penny) return. This was to enable us to use their 'proper gym'. The only school outing I can remember was towards the end of my time there when we were taken to Bristol Zoo - see photo of myself with Julie Kirton. This shows our school summer uniform. Blue and white checked dress, navy blazer with school badge and a straw hat with band and badge on it. In winter, I think we had a navy tunic and white blouse and tie, and probably a jumper or a navy cardigan.
I particularly enjoyed Friday afternoons, it was reading and handicraft work. The reading books were graded, and you usually had a new book for the weekend (what an incentive to get on). We learned joined-up writing with old fashioned copy books, and multiplication tables by rote. The nuns were very dedicated and helped us 'get on' in many ways. Discipline was certainly there but not in a heavy-handed way. If only that were true today!! I later became a primary school teacher and corresponded with Sister Sebastian each Christmas until her death at a convent in Hudsen, America, a region from where she originated, I believe.
Rosemary with Julie Kirton at Bristol School outing
I enclose a photo of Sister Sebastian's class taken about 1949 in front of the school. I have been able to name most but apologise to anyone I've missed out or mis-named. It was taken 70 years ago! The other photo is of myself and Julie Kirton at Bristol School outing.
I am not on the internet but if anyone feels inclined, I would love to hear what happened to you after leaving Rosary House. Sally Robinson would be very happy to pass on any replies.
Rosemary Baxter, née Wall
My family lived in Regent Square from before 1900, at various numbers but always the front, until 1968 when my parents moved to Honiton Road.
Members of my paternal grandmother's family were instrumental in the building of Regents Park and Mont-le-Grand. One set of her great grandparents are buried in Higher Cemetery.
My grandfather was Arthur Robert Dooling who served in the Exeter City Police Force for 34 years. During World War II he was on duty at the top of North Street with the Police Box as his base. I remember taking his lunch up to him in a brief case; my mother would steam it so that he got it hot. He was also Chairman of Heavitree Conservative Club for many years.
My grandfather received a number of medals in his time: In addition to the three standard World War I medals, he was awarded the Defence medal and an Exeter Police Force long-service medal, of which very few were issued. I remember him cleaning them before he wore them for any official parades, etc.
|1937||Street party 1945|
My mother was one of the original committee members for the Heavitree Social Club, first based in the old school, which she attended as a child, and later at Wingfield House. She also helped with the catering at the Conservative Club, for their men only events as well as the dances.
I lived in Regent Square for the first 19 years of my life.
|Heavitree Carnival float|
Diana Horne is my cousin; she often visited from Eastleigh. Shirley Roberts, Jennifer Ford and Patricia Abbott were cousins.
I've identified the children in the images as far as I can remember, but you'll appreciate that after all this time I’m unable to recall everybody.
|Away from Regent Square|
Jean Bauman, née Smith
Sally Robinson (former resident of the Square, and a member of the HLHS) has published a detailed piece of research on the Square. The publication can be downloaded here; hard-copies are available on request from the Society.Scroll to top of page
Our house, 8 Chard Road, was built in 1926/7 and was one of the first to be built in the road. Nos. 6, 8, 10 and 12 were built first by a builder called Kent. Strangely, nos. 2 and 4 were built later by a different builder. My family lived there from 1927 to 1981 when my mother died; my sister and I sold it in 1982.
At the front of the house there was path straight to the front door from a brick wall and gate. My father loved gardening, thus the front garden was filled with scented flowers, a white lilac, lilies of the valley, near the door there were roses galore, and special pansies - huge ones - the seeds of which he got from Switzerland.
At the back of the house, there were concrete steps and a flat stretch of concrete below the dining room window where my mother mangled her hand washing. No washing machines or spin dryers in those days. The concrete ended where the toilet is (then accessed by an outside door), the coal cupboard was next to it towards the house. The kitchen was very small and down a step from the hall. There were no hedges between neighbours, only concrete posts with wire through them between neighbouring gardens, so the whole garden was much wider than it is now, though less private. The narrow pathway led straight down to a bank at the very bottom where it joins the park. Along this path were five apple trees and a William pear tree. Across the garden were fruit bushes: gooseberries, red and blackcurrants, raspberries and strawberries. Also a plum tree and greengage trees. Vegetables were grown between all of this.
During World War II when food was rationed, this supply of food was essential for the family. "Dig for Victory" as the saying was. It supplemented the weekly rations - 4oz of bacon, the same of meat, 2oz of cheese, 4oz butter or margarine, 8oz of sugar, 2oz of tea, 1 egg, 2-3 pints of milk - per person per week. Even bread became rationed as the war proceeded. We bottled fruit but with virtually no sugar available. Everything strictly rationed, you had a book with food coupon from which your nominated grocer cut out the week's coupon allowances. We had to mostly produce our own food as the Germans were sinking merchants’ vessels to try to starve us out. 2,500 such vessels were sunk.
We had an Anderson shelter dug into the bank just up from the piped stream at the very bottom of the garden. In it, we had Lloyd Loom chairs and a Valor oil heater. When the sirens went, we all trooped out with a blanket and cushion to sit out the time until the "all clear" was sounded. You could hear the bombs dropping on Exeter. The Luftwaffe followed the River Exe from the coast up to the city. It was very frightening.
The only heating in the house were the big open fires in the lounge (front room) and the dining room. They were tiled and had high mantle shelves above them. Red tiles in the back room, pole blue in the front. Coal was strictly rationed as well, so only put on when really cold. There were two grates, one in each bedroom, but only used it someone was pretty ill. No double glazing or loft insulation. I can remember the frost patterns on my bedroom window in winter. You got dressed very quickly, likewise washing yourself, no heating at all there!
In the corner of the kitchen was a big gas water heater, with a coffer underneath to do your hand washing. This left little space for the cooker, called "The Black Prince", cast iron, also gas run. The sink was opposite, and a draining board. No fridge, just the understairs cupboard made into a larder with the window covered with steel meshing. No carpets; only cold lino and rugs.
I remember life in Chard Road as happy days. Little in the way of comfort, and yet the neighbours all helped each other with the little they had and comforted one another in times of distress.
By the late fifties, things had improved in the country and the open fires were replaced by electric ones in the lounge and dining room, and storage heaters in the hall and main bedrooms. The bathroom was modernised.
When Dad died in the late sixties, the fruit trees, etc went and all was put down to grass, as my mother was seventy by then and she just got someone in to cut it in-season. The coal shed was made into a shower, this with the toilet was then accessed from indoors via the kitchen and the outer doors bricked up.
With kind permission of JoJo Spinks
Ladysmith School In The 1930s
In the 1930s, Ladysmith School was one of the most recently built schools in Exeter, and consisted of three buildings: the infants', senior boys' and senior girls' schools. The sexes were mixed in the infants' school, and would then be separated when the children went up to senior school at seven.
School began at 9am, when the children would line up in the playground and enter the school to begin lessons. By law, the first lesson of the day was always scripture, even though Ladysmith wasn't a Church of England school. In infants' school, the children would learn the alphabet, their times tables up to seven, their figures, reading (they had to stand and read out passages) and play games. They also learnt the national anthem. At 12pm lunch time began, and all children would return home to eat; Hilda's mum came to collect her from school at lunchtime, and dropped her off again, ready to recommence at 2pm-4pm. It would have been impossible for her to go out to work and do this.
A typical day in the senior school would also begin at 9am, when the children were lined up and marched into the cloakroom, whilst a teacher played a march on the piano. There was no uniform, but the seniors had to change into black plimsolls, which they brought to school in a shoe bag, and hang up their hats and coats.
The school day started with an assembly in the hall. The head teacher, Miss Frayne, had her office upstairs, and at the top of the staircase was a balcony from which she would address the girls. Everybody said a prayer, from the Book of Common Prayer, and sang a hymn, then it was time for lessons.
There were about thirty-five girls to a class. The mornings would be spent sitting in pairs at wooden desks in rows, learning joined-up writing in ink, arithmetic and mental arithmetic, followed by a break, and then History or Geography. Every classroom had a big map, and Hilda remembers the teachers pointing out all the countries in red, which were in our empire, saying 'this is ours …'. The annual Empire Day on 24th May was to be looked forward to; the top classes from all over Exeter would be taken to the Civic Hall (where the pillars at the entrance to the Guildhall Shopping Centre now are; it was pulled down during the post World War II rebuilding). A visitor, often a councillor, would give a speech, and everyone would sing 'I Vow to Thee My Country' and the National Anthem. On return to school, the rest of the day was a holiday.
Afternoons at the senior school were spent knitting, sewing, country dancing or singing songs. They didn't play 'games', instead doing 'drill'. The boys did football, and were known for their excellence. Cliff Bastin, who went on to be a famous footballer, was there at the same time as Hilda. The boys learnt practical skills like woodworking in the afternoons.
There was a single storey building in the playground of the infants' school that served as the 'Domestic Science Centre'. Here, the girls would learn laundry or cooking. In the laundry, they would practise washing clothes with scrubbing boards, removing stains, starching and ironing clothes. There was even a housewifery centre off Queen Street, where girls might be sent for six weeks - Hilda was sent there and learnt how to clean a grate!
Discipline was firm at school, and if you whispered, you might be sent to stand in the corner of the classroom, facing the wall. If you continued, you'd be sent to stand outside the door. As all classrooms opened onto the hall, you would be seen by anyone who passed by. Rude behaviour would result in being hit on the hand with the slipper. The cane was only used at the boys' school. Prefects were chosen in the senior classes, and given jobs with responsibility, such as handing out the 1/3 pint bottles of milk, tidying up the classroom, staying behind to clean the blackboard etc.
Once a term, the nurse would come in to inspect hair. Any girl found to have nits would have to have her hair cut off into an 'Eton crop', which was very shaming. Most working-class people could not afford dentistry, so once a year the school dentist would come and look at teeth. If you had any problems, you would be sent to see the free school dentist at Southernhay.
Hilda had left by 1937, but when World War II broke out, her sister was still at Ladysmith School. The teachers learnt first aid and the children had an air raid drill. They took their masks to school every day, and kept them by their desks. When they heard the siren, each senior child of twelve was responsible for one of the infants. They would need to collect that child and the school was evacuated. Each pair of children would be allocated a house along Ladysmith Road, to which they had to go for shelter. This wasn't ideal for the residents, as it meant it was difficult for them to go out, as they needed to be on standby! The reason for doing this was that if a bomb struck the school, it would not harm a large number of children at once. It took two or three years for Exeter residents to be given air raid shelters. If your garden was big enough, you could dig an Anderson Shelter, or if not the government gave Morrison Shelters, which were like big steel cages, that could protect you from falling masonry etc.
All the teachers at Ladysmith were single women; men were not allowed to teach at a girls' school. When they trained, all female teachers had to sign up to teach for seven years, so that the state got back the money spent on training them. They did have to leave immediately if they got married. A married woman would be expected to be kept by her husband, and her job should become available for someone else. However, due to World War I, women really outnumbered men, so when a teacher at Ladysmith did leave to get married, Hilda remembers it causing a big stir.
In the thirties, everyone started school at five and remained at that one school until they left at fourteen. You would leave at the end of the week that you turned fourteen. Hilda, like many, left on the Friday and started work on the following Monday. There were no exams or tests at school, and parents were not allowed within the school gates - they more or less took it for granted that you were doing OK. It wasn't until 1944 that the Butler Education Act came in, along with the 11+, and Secondary Modern or Grammar schools. Even then it would only be rich children, from public schools, who would have had the opportunity to go to university. This would not have even been a consideration for children at Ladysmith; the education mainly prepared girls for housekeeping. You could go to night school to learn extra skills - Hilda's parents paid for her to learn shorthand typing and book-keeping. Perhaps these days, we don't appreciate how many options are available to us.
Christmas In 1930's Heavitree
Although it had officially become part of Exeter in 1913, twenty years later Heavitree still felt like a village, much like Topsham does today. It had its own community, which came together even more than usual at Christmas time. Hilda was a child living in Newcombe Terrace in the 1930s. She shares some of her memories.
1930's Heavitree would have been an atmospheric place in December after dark, with the gas lights along the main street creating an intimate feel, and almost no cars passing through. Apart from Co-op, all of the shops would have been run by families, who lived above. Every shop would have had a (Christian themed) Christmas display, and shopkeepers would vie with each other to create the best one.
Dunstans would have been the place to buy a Christmas tree, and there were holly wreaths and crosses in the window. A week before Christmas, his butcher's shop on North Street would have had rows of chickens for sale - a luxury for Christmas Day, and probably the only time working-class people would eat chicken all year. Of course, you had to prepare the chicken yourself. Poorer people in the slums, like Ellis Place, would not have had ovens in their houses, and so Mrs Anning at the baker's (where Natwest was until recently) would have opened her bake house early on Christmas day, to cook everyone's lunches.
For those who could afford to set a little money aside, the Royal Oak pub ran a 'thrift club'. Starting in January, every Friday night after getting paid, you could save some money up, to draw out a fortnight before Christmas.
People would make their own decorations. You could buy paper chains, which Hilda and her sister would stick together with glue they made from flour and water. Lots of people would pick holly, which was easy to find, as Heavitree was still surrounded by lots of countryside and scrub land; Hilda found it around the Barrack Road allotments.
Ten days before Christmas, the parish church choir (all men), supplemented by ladies, used to go around the area and sing carols. They didn't collect money, but could be given a mince pie. On Christmas Eve they would be invited back to the vicarage for refreshments.
Hilda belonged to the church guides, and a month before Christmas they would collect up any toys that they no longer needed, and spend meetings painting and renovating them. On Christmas Eve they piled them onto a trek cart and went all around the parish delivering them to poor children in the slums (mostly Wonford, which they called 'the Village'). There was huge deprivation; the 1930s were only twelve years after the end of World War I, and there were a lot of fatherless families, living on a tiny widows' pensions and whatever work the mother could do from home; they were reliant on charity and community support.
Christmas Day was spent at home with the family. The most exciting part of the day for many was when the postman delivered all the Christmas cards, between 10 and 12am. The card giving was part of the celebration for the day; Hilda and her sister would make cards for their parents. The children would have a stocking, perhaps containing a party horn, a notebook and pencil, a comic, something to do, like wool and needles, and an orange at the bottom. They would also sometimes have a small present on Christmas Eve and would have one large present on Christmas Day - Hilda remembers getting a wooden desk.
The rest of the day would be spent playing party games, like Squeak Piggy Squeak, Musical Chairs or Blind Man's Buff. Relatives would often visit, and there would be singing - children were all expected to sing a song alone, and would have their favourite pieces to perform. After the radio came in, the whole family would sit around the radio to listen to the King's speech. They would all stand during the national anthem. Christmas was an exciting time for the children of Heavitree; there would always be parties organised for them. There was a big one at the conservative club in Church Street. The Sunday school children of eight years and older would be taken by bus to the pictures at the Palladium in Paris Street (just up from the Honiton Inn, and lost in World War II). The films were always Laurel and Hardy or cowboys and Indians. They were given an orange when they came out; a treat as the working classes could never afford to buy fruit.
It was always an adventure going to Exeter - you would put your best clothes on for the trip. For a month every year, the big shop called Waltons (where M&S is now) built a fairy land on the second floor, with a series of tableaux: nursery rhymes, a fairy grotto and Father Christmas. You paid to enter, and the money went to local charities - the trip was a highlight of the year.
Thank you so much to Hilda for sharing these memories. They take us back to a time when our busy district of Exeter was a quiet place with a real village feel; where family, community and the Church were the most important things at Christmas time.
Snippets From The Local Press
5th October 1820 - Exeter Flying Post
Several robberies have lately been committed at Heavitree: on the night of Monday se'night the house of Mr Slocombe, butcher, was broken open and a quantity of meat and other things stolen there from: and early on Saturday morning last, the sum of 5 pounds was stolen from the shop of Mr Sanders, baker: on the following morning (Sunday) the house of Mr Morren was entered, and cash stolen to the amount of between four and five pounds. Several silver spoons, marked, and two watches lay near the place where the money was kept, at Mr Sander's.
On Monday last John Burnett and James Alsop, the former 18 and the latter 17 years of age, were arrested on suspicion of being the offenders, who on being taken before a Magistrate, confessed their guilt and were committed to Bridewell for a further examination at the Castle, on Friday next. Burnett was later convicted of felony, for which he was imprisoned in the Devon County Bridewell and privately whipped.
14th October 1820 - Exeter Flying Post
Heavitree fire on 11th September. Fire at house belonging to Mr Austin (bricklayer) near the Horse and Groom, on the right hand side leading to the church. 5 Houses in front, 5 cottages behind totally destroyed. Water supply problems. Nearly all properties insured.
6th October 1832 - Exeter Flying Post
Heavitree. The [Cholera] epidemic has made its appearance in this beautiful village, but as if only to afford additional evidence of the salubrity of the situation the following is the very satisfactory Report made by the Board this day.
- New cases 0
- Died 0
- Recovered 0
- Remaining 8
24th July 1834 - Exeter Flying Post
Mont-le-Grand sale, together with two houses in Bicton Place and 30 acres of land which is 'healthy, with good views'.
11th January 1838 - Exeter Flying Post
Caution against indiscriminate alms giving
A further proof of the necessity of caution in this respect was afforded on Thursday last at Heavitree. The Rev Arthur Atherley, the clergyman of the parish, [Heavitree's vicar 1820-1857] had received intimation that a man with a petition to which his name was attached as having given the petitioner 10s, was soliciting contributions, in the parish, and in the course of the day the rev gentleman in passing through the village of Wonford, fell in with him, and being unknown to the mendicant, he presented his petition, and solicited alms of Mr Atherley.
Convinced now of the imposition endeavoured to be practised, from the forgery of his own name, Mr Atherley told the man the petition would not be returned, and that he must accompany him. This the beggar did for a short distance, but coming to a part where a lane branched off, the fellow bolted, making off at the top of his speed.
Determined, however, by making an example of the impostor, to endeavour to check this prevalent practice, Mr Atherley pursued him, in which he was joined by Mr Crowther. The fellow outran them for a considerable distance, but at length was taken, and being on Friday brought before the Magistrates at the Castle, was convicted as a rogue and vagabond, and sent to exercise at the treadmill for three weeks.
18th July 1846 - Woolmers Exeter & Plymouth Gazette
Heavitree. During the last week the inhabitants of this quiet village have been moved from their accustomed proprietary by the gaieties of a revel. The streets have been animated by the presence of gingerbread stalls, puppet shows, nut barrows and tumblers, whilst in one of the fields whirligigs, swinging boats and "the American wizard from the wizard's magic cave", have respectively demonstrated their mutual high pretensions to public patronage; not have they languished for want of it. The new parish church of Heavitree is fast progressing to completion and will be consecrated on Monday week.
10th July 1851 - Woolmers Exeter & Plymouth Gazette
Heavitree Fair. On Tuesday and Wednesday the annual holiday fair of this village was held and drew together a large number of the pleasure seeking population of this city and neighbourhood, who delight in such recreations. The day's amusements consisted in climbing a pole for a leg of mutton, donkey racing, etc, etc, and in the evening the dance was enjoyed and entered into with great ardour.
12th July 1871 - Exeter Flying Post
Heavitree had its annual revel on Sunday, and it was attended and it was attended with the usual amount of inebriety and misconduct. The writer of this paragraph witnessed a most disgraceful scene. A lot of roughs (men, women and boys) had been turned out of the public houses and commenced to fight, one across the other, neither of them apparently knowing why they were fighting or who they were fighting with. The language was far from being refined and the women out-vied the men in the elegance of their expressions.These annual gatherings would be more honoured in the breach than in the observance. Yesterday the fair commenced with donkey racing, etc. and today there will be climbing for legs of mutton and women for gown pieces.
1st August 1883 - Exeter Flying Post
The Salvation Army at Heavitree. Complaints by Residents.
At the castle Mr F Orchard said he appeared on behalf of a large number of the inhabitants at Heavitree in order to present a petition asking the Bench to assist them in removing the nuisance and obstruction caused by the Salvation Army. The petition set forth that a body of Salvationists created an intolerable and constant nuisance by their shouting and raving in the public thoroughfare at Heavitree. This was a great annoyance to the inhabitants and he asked the Magistrates to take some steps to stop this state of things.
The petition bore the signatures of fifty persons. Mr Orchard remarked that the obstruction and annoyance were caused at the crossway by the junction of Church Street and Fore Street. The Army took up their stand at the path and they completed blocked the free passage of the road. They remained there for a long time hollering and shouting so much that they could be heard at the turnpike gate. [by this date the turnpike was at Livery Dole]
The Deputy Chief Constable said he was perfectly cognizant of the facts stated but that there had been no obstruction that the police could interfere with or the offenders would have been brought before the Bench. The obstruction was rather caused by persons who went there to molest the Army.
After further discussion the question was dropped.
[This was one of many attempts by Devonians of all types to stop the Salvation Army conducting outdoor services]
23rd March 1900 - Devon & Exeter Gazette
Auction Anstey Orchard, Wonford. 95ft frontage to Fore Street, Wonford, 225ft to road at rear, depth 400ft, area 2a 1r 4p. Ripe for development of 60 houses. Land and buildings let for £25 10s p.a., but early possession can be arranged. Rippon Son an d Co., 8 Queen Street. (Withdrawn at £435, on 20/04/1900 D&EG p14).
30th April 1901 - Devon & Exeter Gazette
Carbolic Acid for Cider
Last evening, while Mr Alfred Oxenham, of Heavitree Bridge, Exeter, was engaged in whitewashing a house, to which he was shortly removing, he drank a portion of the contents of a bottle containing carbolic acid in mistake for cider. Mr Andrews, surgeon, was called, and ordered Mr Oxhenham’s removal to the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, where he died soon afterwards. Deceased was 34 years of age, and leaves a widow. An inquest will probably be held today.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Around The World
As Europeans moved around the world, it became common for them to [re]name topographical features and places after family names or places where they had grown up. Devon place-names can be found throughout the world; even small villages such as Heavitree are found in other places.
Heavitree Gap, Australia
A river pass which cuts through the MacDonnell mountain-range providing the southern entrance to Alice Springs in the Northern Territories, Australia. It was named by surveyor William W Mills who was working on the new overland telegraph line in the northern territories. Mills, according to the 1851 census, was born in Heavitree, and aged 6 years old lived in Polsloe Park. He said he named the pass Heavitree Gap after his ‘old school in Devon’. This could refer to the school that used to stand on the site of the present Co-op. It is claimed that he named Alice Springs after Alice Todd, the wife of Sir Charles Todd, the Superintendent of Telegraph.
There are a number of Heavitree named places in Alice Springs including a Heavitree Court and a Heavitree Gap supermarket. One should note that although Mills called the pass Heavitree Gap it did already have a name – Ntaripe (pronounced Ndariba) – a sacred site to the indigenous Arrente (Arunda) people.
A view of Heavitree Gap, Australia
Heavitree, New Zealand
Heavitree Farm in New Zealand is on the North Island in the town of Gisborne, close to Hawkes Bay. The farm was purchased by the Newman family in 1987 and they named it Heavitree after their ancestors who originally came to New Zealand from Heavitree, Devon in 1854. They grow a variety of fruit there and produce wine and juice under the banner of their ‘Heavitree Juice Ltd’ company.
Heavitree Street Names, USA
There are three Heavitree street names in the Severna Park area of Maryland, USA: Heavitree Lane, Heavitree Hill and Heavitree Garth. These can be found off Devonshire Lane. The local authority has been approached to see if they can throw any light on the use of the Heavitree name.
Founded in the 1830s it lies at an altitude of 756m (2480 feet) in a mountainous area near the middle of the island. It owes its name to the Davy family. They lived at Mere Farm in the parish before moving to Countess Wear in around 1765. The Davys were involved in slavery and compensated after its abolition in 1833. Heavitree would have been founded using the wealth accumulated from slavery. The estate became a coffee plantation and people still live in Heavitree today.
Maps showing the location of Heavitree, Jamaica
Heavitree, South Africa
Owes its origins to two maiden aunts living in Heavitree, Devon who in 1857 sent money to Natal to enable two sons of the Ralfe family to purchase land at Eden near Ladysmith. They renamed the farm Heavitree. Winston Churchill refers to a skirmish at Heavitree in his Boer War diaries. For many years there was a prize at the local annual cattle show called the Heavitree Gold Cup. Heavitree still exists and you can even stay at the farm as they run a bed and breakfast there.
Heavitree House, Scotland
This is the name of a large house built in Golspie, Sutherland by a James Anderson in around 1850. It subsequently became a hotel and then a farm. It is now private housing although you can stay there. Why it was called Heavitree?
Heavitree Street Names, Plumstead, London
Heavitree Road and Heavitree Close are two street names in Plumstead, Greenwich in London. Heavitree Road was built in 1877 and was so named at the request of a Mr Braund whose birthplace was Heavitree, Devon. This is believed to be Marwood Kelly Braund a solicitor who moved from Devon to Plumstead in the Victorian era.
Heavitree Road, Kingsand, Cornwall
Heavitree Road in Kingsand got its name after a vote at a public meeting to discuss a new name for Back Lane. There was a thriving Wesleyan Methodist Church, most of its worshippers lived in Back Lane and were supposedly ardent teetotallers. The local fishing fraternity with their characteristic wry humour noted that every Thursday the Heavitree Brewery dray was particularly busy making deliveries in the area. They nicknamed the street Heavitree Road, later securing the vote to officially change the name.
Heavitree Way, Taunton
A new street near the railway station and railway line. When approached to discover the link with Heavitree, Devon the local council simply said there wasn’t one but that it “sounds nice”.Scroll to top of page
Here we recall the pivotal role of those who founded and ran the Society for many years from its earliest days.
Den Perrin, 1932 - 2017
Den Perrin, founder of the Heavitree Local History Society, and its first Secretary, passed away on 18th November 2017.
When Den retired from Devon County Council, his active mind turned to potential projects to keep him busy and stimulated. As a Heavitree resident, with a keen interest in history, Den started to explore the idea of a Local History Society.
This culminated on 12th August 1998 when Den, together with David Morrish, Norman Shiel and Martin Weiler, met 'to discuss the possibility of forming a Local History Society for Heavitree'.
The idea was quickly endorsed, and the Society inaugurated in October that year with Den as secretary. From the outset, he was very focussed on doing things rather than just talking about local history. Very speedily he organised for the fledgling Society to publish a guide to the Higher Cemetery, and moreover successfully approached Exeter City Council to pay for this.
Soon after, Den started an annual survey of the shops in Heavitree Fore Street, and researched what had been there previously right back until 1851, producing the results in a booklet. The survey is still continued by members and the changes are updated on our website.
Den also edited a fine publication naming all those from Heavitree who died in World War I - The Heavitree Roll of Honour; when it came to World War II commemorations, Den negotiated the closure of Whipton Lane and organised a street party to mark the 60th anniversary of the end of hostilities. Over 300 enjoyed entertainment, tea and a victory cake.
Den launched the Society newsletter in 2000 and continued documenting the history of the area. Other publications by him included histories of Heavitree Parish Church and Heavitree School. He also wrote a booklet for the Civic Society on all the plaques and public inscriptions around Exeter.
Den's biggest triumph was persuading the Royal Albert Memorial Museum to host an Exhibition on Heavitree's history - Heavitree 2002. This proved a great success and we still use some of the exhibition boards today.
He was very keen on reminding people that Heavitree used to be an independent borough until being annexed by Exeter in 1913. Eventually however he forgave the City, and indeed Den was the main driver behind the setting up of the Exeter Local History Society.
When he organised the first Heavitree Fore Street walk in 2000 an amazing 83 people turned up. Den had touched a nerve. He knew that people were interested in their community and its local history; knew it but crucially did something about it. Everyone with an interest in Heavitree will forever be grateful for Den's foresight and persistence.
The Society is still thriving today - nearly 20 years after Den formed it - a great legacy from the man we are honoured to remember as our founder and inspiration.Scroll to top of page
David Morrish, 1931 - 2018
David Morrish, co-founder of the Heavitree Local History Society, and its first Chairman, passed away on 14th February 2018.
A County and City Liberal Party Councillor for Heavitree for three decades, David was widely known as 'Mr Heavitree'.
He always had a passionate interest in the local history of Heavitree. In a Heavitree Liberal Newsletter of April 1968 David wrote an article about Heavitree in Australia. Here two of his great interests came together - geography and history.
The newsletter said that David 'makes a spare time hobby of recording aspects of Heavitree's history. As a geographer and Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, he has been busy tracking down Heavitree's Australian 'twin' '.
Given this level of interest in local history, and his 'can do' attitude, it is no surprise that David supported the formation of a Local History Society. Together with Den Perrin, David drew up plans, before hosting an initial meeting at his Birchy Barton Hill home on 12th August 1998.
David and Den's enthusiasm was infectious, and the Society was quickly inaugurated that October. Den was elected Secretary and David the Chairman, a post he held for 12 years.
David immediately got down to work on issues the Society could research and discuss. He wrote a paper for the Society's first meeting suggesting a number of themes. These included: Heavitree Urban District Council (1896-1913), schools, origins of street names, buildings in the conservation area, census returns, the cemetery, old newspaper reports, breweries and the churches.
Particularly popular were David's guided tours of the Fore Street area. The first one was held on Sunday 2nd July 2000; an amazing 83 people turned up. The Society newsletter reported 'Despite the numbers and the constant roar of traffic, David Morrish managed to both entertain and enlighten all those present'.
It was fitting that the Society's meeting on 6th March 2018 was packed to the rafters. Those present held a minute's silence to remember David, then took the opportunity to share personal memories.
Members stressed David's role in supporting and participating in the Heavitree Community Association.
Our current Secretary, Terry Bound, recalled David's role as a lecturer at St Luke's teacher training college. David led a party, including Terry, over the old bridge at Clyst St Mary to the banks of the river Axe. There they saw all the layers in the shingle cliff and David said "Gentleman this is geography being enacted before your very eyes". Terry said he will never forget those words.
Terry also paid tribute to David's role in researching the historic boundary of Heavitree Parish, and how Heavitree Urban District Council celebrated Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897 by erecting additional boundary stones and reviving the beating of the bounds ceremony, when some even rode round on horseback.Scroll to top of page