Articles relating to Heavitree and its past.
These may be connected with research that has been undertaken, subjects that have been covered at our quarterly meetings, or, information that has been passed to us via social media.
- Heavitree - An Overview
- The Origin Of 'Heavitree'
- Heavitree Parish Boundary
- Heavitree As A Place Of Execution
- Higher Cemetery
- Livery Dole Almshouses And Chapel
- Heavitree Toll Houses
- Heavitree House, Church Street
- Nineteenth Century Heavitree
- Heavitree Urban District Council
- Heavitree Pleasure Ground
- Retailing in Heavitree
- Heavitree United Reformed Church
- St Michael's Church Of England Primary Academy
- Ladysmith Schools
- Brewing In Heavitree
- Heavitree United Football Club
- Wyvern Barracks
- Heavitree In The Second World War
- Famous Heavitree Residents
- Heavitree's Global Footprints
- Extracts From Old Newsletters: '1066 and All That' (Feb 2001)
- Extracts From Old Newsletters: 'Is Fore Street Heavitree a Roman Road?'
- The Hoare Family
- Heavitree Recollected
Heavitree - An Overview
For many centuries Heavitree's parish boundaries swept right around from Countess Wear to Cowley, although by 1800 its population, despite its size, was less than 900.
By the time the Heavitree Urban District Council (HUDC) was set up at the end of the 19th century, Wonford, Polsloe, Whipton and Stoke Hill were still within that boundary. Nowadays Heavitree is an identified ward for local election purposes - an area loosely centred on the Fore Street shops.
It is possible that Fore Street, Heavitree is on the route of a Roman road into Exeter, but to date this is unproven. What is known is that Fore Street was on the main Exeter to London road by the 1500s and this, together with the location of the parish church, led to Wonford's local pre-eminence being gradually usurped by the hamlet of Heavitree.
It is known that before William the Conqueror arrived on the scene Heavitree manor was part of the Wonford royal estate. Wonford was the name given to an ancient 'hundred' but unlike many other hundreds it didn't have a minster church. The role seems to have been taken by an early Christian place of worship on a prominent position on the edge of the estate at Heavitree.
St Michael & All Angels Church, Heavitree - Dec 2013
For centuries, Heavitree provided the inhabitants of Exeter with food, building materials, and, as the city grew in importance, labour. However, the relationship between the city of Exeter and the village of Heavitree wasn't always amicable. Exeter, because of its importance, has been beseiged on many occasions since 1066. The beseiging armies would have camped in Heavitree and demanded that the local farmers provided them with food while stopping trade with the city's inhabitants.
Although there is no recorded evidence, it is likely that this forced collaboration would have led to recriminations when hostilities ceased. This may have been the reason why people living within the city walls called those living in St Sidwell's "Grecians", or untrustworthy, and Heavitree was nominated as the place for executions.
Despite this friction Heavitree became a honey-pot for wealthy Exeter merchants and people returning to England after making their fortunes with the East India Company. One of the main reasons for the building of Baring Crescent, Salutary Mount, Mont Le Grand and Regents Park during the first half of the 19th century was the good health record of the parish. Whilst scores of people died from cholera in Exeter, Heavitree residents escaped almost unscathed.
This expansion escalated as Exeter's prosperity increased. By the middle of the 19th century the city fathers were keen to include Heavitree in the city's boundaries, but it wasn't until 1913 that annexation finally took place and ended a thousand years of independence.Scroll to top of page
The Origin Of 'Heavitree'
Most place names are either personal, i.e. named after a person, or topographical, i.e. named after a local feature in the landscape.
These derivations are not always apparent in modern English place-names as most are rooted in ancient languages such Celtic, Latin, Old English or Norman French.
Another barrier to tracing the derivation of an English place-name is that it will undoubtedly have changed over the years. The following are just a few examples of Heavitree found in old texts and documents:
- 1086 Hevetrowa (Domesday Book)
- 1130 Hefatriwe
- 1179 Eveltrea
- 1270 Hevedtre
- 1345 Hevtre
One theory as to the origin of the name Heavitree is that it was derived from it being the common place of execution for malefactors, signifying the heavy or sorrowful tree. Another possibility is that it refers to the ‘head tree’, and yet another suggestion is that it is made up of ave or avon (water), and tree the British word for town or settlement.
Most place-name experts now agree however that it probably derives from the personal name Hefa and the Old English word treow meaning a tree, post or beam. Heavitree is included in a group of 38 settlements which have similar characteristics, namely adjacent to a boundary of an estate and associated with a meeting-place. A tree is a natural marker for both purposes.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Parish Boundary
For at least 1000 years prior to 1913, when it was annexed by Exeter, Heavitree parish, which included Polsloe, Stoke Hill, Whipton, Broadfields and Wonford, looked after its own affairs. It has been suggested that the site of its parish church, St Michael and All Angels, was one of the earliest Christian sites in Devon.
The administrative area known as a parish appears in King Alfred's laws and had both spiritual and secular functions. As land-owners and residents had to pay a tithe or tax to their parish church it was essential that the vicar and church officials knew the precise extent of their parish. The parish gradually became the accepted local government unit below the county and was given responsibility for administering the poor law acts, highway maintenance and enforcing the law.
The need to define and defend individual and group territorial boundaries seems to be a basic human instinct that is also found in many animals. The practice of marking land boundaries with physical objects such as wooden posts or stones has lasted for at least 3000 years (see Deuteronomy 19:14) and Tudor boundary stones marking Heavitree's parish boundaries can still be seen.
Heavitree Parish Boundary
Boundary stones or markers rarely defined every bend and kink in parish boundaries and as accurate maps only became available in the late 19th century parish councils used a technique to define and identify boundaries which dated back to ancient Greece and the Romans. It went under the name of 'beating the bounds'.
Throughout the country vicars and parish officials led a group of their parishioners, including in many places young boys, around their parish boundary. Each boundary stone or significant bend in the boundary was struck with a willow wand or a rock. In many parishes a boy was raised by the ankles and his head was bounced on the stone or the ground. The reasoning was that making young boys witness and take part in in the ceremony would ensure the survival of the group memory and they would make convincing witnesses if the boundary dispute was ever brought to court.
Peramulating Heavitree's twenty mile boundary took most of a day and regular stops for refreshment were required. On returning to the church an ale-feast was often held. Many parishioners used the occasion as an excuse to get drunk and misbehave. It is perhaps no coincidence that the word 'bounder' means a cad or person of objectionable manners.
Heavitree Parish Boundary overlain on a modern OS map
The beating of the bounds traditionally took place on Rogation Sunday, but in an attempt to avoid the fights that often broke out when groups of high-spirited, semi-intoxicated youths from neighbouring parishes met, some churches switched the ceremony to their church's dedication day.
Some of the stones which marked the boundary of Heavitree parish have been in existance for many centuries, but in 1897 the Heavitree Urban District Council celebrated Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee by erecting some additional stones and reviving the beating the bounds ceremony which had lapsed over the years. The ceremony again lapsed after the 1913 annexation, but was revived for a second time in 1975 by a group of local enthusiasts. Since then the ceremony has taken place every three years or so.
A booklet published in 2007 by the HLHS exists containing a record of Heavitree's surviving parish and the UDC boundary stones + a description of how to follow as closely as possible the 1897 boundary.
Anyone wishing to attempt the walk will find a good street map is useful. Walkers are warned that bridle paths are often very muddy in winter so stout shoes are advisable; flooding is also possible in low-lying areas after prolonged heavy rain. The Countryside Code should be adhered to at all times. The walk is of moderate difficulty with one long climb in the Stoke Hill area.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree As A Place Of Execution
For many centuries up to 1531, persons found guilty of a variety of crimes including murder, witchcraft, heresy or treason were put to death at the Livery Dole crossroads. In 1531, the place of execution was moved to the Sidmouth Road / Honiton Road junction at Ringwell. Here it remained until 1796, when the new County Prison in Exeter was built.
The Heavitree parish records do not mention any executions. However, a number of burials of people executed in Heavitree are recorded in the register of the neighbouring St Sidwell's parish. These entries represent only a small proportion of executions carried out as many churches did not allow the bodies of people who had been executed to be buried in their graveyards. Many bodies were buried in a small walled cemetery adjacent to the gallows (bones still come to the surface from time to time); some were taken to the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital to be anatomised; others were cremated on the spot.
Wood engraving of a typical public execution
Public executions were witnessed by hundreds, sometimes thousands, of interested on-lookers of all ages, many employers allowing their workers to have a day's holiday. The prisoners were accompanied on their journey from Exeter Castle to Ringwell by huge crowds, many of whom paused for refreshment at the Heavitree inns. The local printers published broadsheets describing the characters of the people about to be executed setting out full details of their crimes.Scroll to top of page
In the nineteenth century, population growth in Exeter resulted in a dramatic increase in mortality, especially during the frequent cholera epidemics. This placed a huge strain on burial space and the Lower Cemetery, off Bartholomew Street, failed to provide a long-term solution.
Land covering an area of 6 acres outside the city boundary at Heavitree was acquired by the Exeter Improvement Commissioners; 4.5 acres was reserved for Church of England burials, the remaining 1.5 acres for Dissenters or Non-Conformists (i.e. those who don’t follow Church of England principles) **. On 26th March 1866 the Higher Cemetery was opened, dedicated by the Reverend James Chapman, former Bishop of Colombo. The first recorded burial was that of Edward Leach Herbert on 7th June 1866.
The Lodge, designed by a Mr Luscombe and the two chapels **, one for the Church of England, the other for Dissenters, both built of Heavitree stone, and designed by Edward Ashworth, were built in 1865. Ashworth had moved to Exeter in 1846 and built or restored many Devon churches. He is buried in the cemetery, as is the proprietor of Robert Veitch and Son, the firm that carried out the landscaping works.
A small area, formerly called St Leonards Churchyard, and lying to the north of the lodge was added to the main cemetery in 1877. Although not added until 11 years after the main cemetery opened, it is the oldest piece of land used for burials now within the cemetery boundary. The shape of a circular coach-drive in this section, although now grassed over, is still visible and is delineated by the headstone positions. Remains exhumed from the ruined St Edmund’s Church are buried in this section.
Entrance to Higher Cemetery showing the Dissenters' Chapel (near) & Church of England Chapel (far)
The cemetery, extended at least three times over the years, now occupies 45 acres, contains the remains of over 70,000 people, has over 12,000 memorials and is a peaceful wildlife haven. There is a section containing the bodies of those who died in World War I, another for World War II, and even a section for infant burials that was opened in 2007. Other memorials of great poignancy are those commemorating 83 victims of the 1942 Baedeker raids, an imposing granite cross to the 189 who perished in the 1887 Theatre Royal fire, and the grave of stone-carver Harry Hems. In addition, the cemetery holds the remains of those originally interred at several Exeter churches that have long vanished.
The Friends of Higher Cemetery was established in 2011 to help promote the cemetery and to complement the services of Exeter City Council who operate the cemetery.
** Separate chapels and burial areas for Church of England and for Dissenters would have been the norm of the day. Today this would be regarded as a frivolous waste of time and money, but not then as the Church of England wouldn’t be tainted by those it regarded with contempt for not adhering to its beliefs. The practice has long been abandoned and all denominations now use the same burial areas and chapel.
Exeter City Council, 2002 – Higher Cemetery - history and lives;
Friends of Higher Cemetery, 2011 – Higher Cemetery time-line
Livery Dole Almshouses And Chapel
The first documentary evidence of the name Livery Dole appears in a deed dated 1279. For many centuries it was the scene of executions for persons from both the City of Exeter and the County of Devon. In addition to executions by hanging, people found guilty of witchcraft, heresy and other ‘heinous’ crimes, were burnt at the stake.
This was the fate that befell Thomas Benet who was burnt at the stake on 10th January 1531, for denying the supremacy of the Pope. This was the last recorded execution at Livery Dole; in the following year executions commenced at Ringwell.
Sir Thomas Denys, Sheriff of Devon, subsequently regretted allowing Benet’s execution to take place and as an act of contrition left instructions in his will for 12 almshouses to be built on the site. These were completed in 1594, rebuilt in 1851 and extended in the 1970s.
Livery Dole almshouses
Although it has often been claimed that the chapel at Livery Dole is medieval in date and was dedicated to St Clarus, this is now known to be false. In fact it was built with the almshouses adjacent to it in 1592.
The building consists of a nave, of which the chancel is a continuation. The doorway is at the western end and the windows are filled with stained glass. It is built of Heavitree Stone, one of the few in the Parish, supported by buttresses. The tracery of the eastern window is a mixture of the late Decorated and Perpendicular styles and has probably been taken from a medieval building.
It is possible that the chapel was built as the place where prayers were offered for the souls of persons executed at the nearby crossroads.
Chapel prior to 1850 and three of the original almshouses
Heavitree Toll Houses
Turnpike Trusts were formed in the 18th and 19th centuries to bring about an improvement in the country's roads. The Exeter Turnpike Trust was formed in 1753 and as all traffic from the east and north had to pass through Heavitree a number of toll houses and gates were built in the parish.
They were situated at: Fore Street Heavitree, Livery Dole, Heavitree Bridge, Blackboy Gate, Stoke Hill, Mary Pole Head, Sandy Gate, and Mile End on Topsham Road.
Toll House at the junction of Blackboy Road & Mount Pleasant Road pre-1884.
The hearse is probably on its way to Higher Cemetery
Some roads such as Fore Street Heavitree and East Wonford Hill were repaired and improved by the Turnpike Trust. Others, such as Moor Lane, which now runs through the middle of Sowton Industrial Estate, were completely new roads. The fee for passing through the toll gates was determined by the type of vehicle, the number of horses, and the purpose of the journey. People from the parish, soldiers on duty and clergymen often travelled free, but there were many disputes which had to be settled in the local courts.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree House, Church Street
Heavitree House was a small cob house, surrounded by an old cob wall, in Church Lane, Heavitree. It stood on twelve acres of land, including orchards, overlooking open countryside (now the RD&E Hospital).
The House was the home of artist and author Richard Ford (1796-1858), who in 1845 wrote the infamous "Handbook for Travellers in Spain" - the first Spanish travel guide. Ford lived at the property from 1835 until his death in 1858. During this time he set about enlarging and completely remodelling the House and gardens.
|1889 OS map||Young Richard Ford||Older Richard Ford||Richard Ford's headstone|
Ford incorporated many items salvaged from buildings in the area - the fireplace was taken from a house pulled down in Rack Street (West Quarter), and the ornate staircase, gates and carved woodwork all came from King John's Tavern on South Street (which was being rebuilt). A font in the garden was possibly taken from the 1845 rebuild of parts of Heavitree Church; this has since been returned to the Church.
An enthusiastic collector, Ford filled the House with items from his travels. The bathroom was tiled with original tiles that he had picked up off the floor of the Alhambra, Granada. Part of the bath was made from the original register-chest at Exeter Cathedral, and there were sculpted heads on a parapet, from Italy.
In the grounds of the house, Ford laid out 'Moorish' style rectangular gardens, with many pools and fountains, lined with cypress trees and featuring a Moorish tower / gazebo building, echoing the Hispano, Berber, and Islamic architecture of Morocco.
|1843 painting||House + gardens pre-1878||House in good condition|
Following Ford's death in 1858, Heavitree House passed to his son from his second marriage, Clare Ford. The House was let out until its sale in 1898 to Edward and Annie Shrimpton; they lived there until just before the First World War. The House then passed through several hands, before most of the grounds were sold at auction in 1938 for house building. The House itself remained and was used as a workshop during the Second World War, before falling into disrepair by 1949; it was demolished in 1960, despite being grade II listed, and replaced by further housing.
|1938 auction plan||House in poor condition||Richard Ford Court flyer||Richard Ford memorial|
All that remains today are a few red sandstones from the garden, and a small black plaque bearing Richard Ford's name on the wall of Richard Ford Court in Meadow Way.
Further information on Richard Ford can be found here.Scroll to top of page
Nineteenth Century Heavitree
During the nineteenth century Heavitree changed in many ways from what had gone before. The following are a couple of extracts from popular press of the day by way of illustration of these changes.
“Always famous for the purity and salubrity of its air, its delightful situation, fine prospects and agreeable walks and rides, has, within these few years, felt extensively, the exhilarating hand of modern improvements.
A row of houses that divided the road has been taken down, the road widened, and the turnpike removed.
The vast number of genteel houses and villas recently erected here far exceed our limits of description. It presents a charming seclusion, though cheerfully situated on the great western road, contiguous, or almost adjoining to a populous and increasing city.”
Besley, Exeter Guide and Itinerary 1836
Mont Le Grand
“Heavitree had its annual ‘revel’ on Sunday and it was attended with the usual amount of inebriety and misconduct. The writer of this paragraph witnessed a most disgraceful scene. A lot of roughs, men, women and boys, had been turned out of the public houses and commenced to fight, one across the other, neither of them apparently knowing why they were fighting and who they were fighting with.
The language was far from refined and the women outvied the men in the elegance of their expression.
Today there will be climbing for legs of mutton and women racing for gown pieces.”
Trewmans Flying Post 1871Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Urban District Council
For many centuries the parish was responsible for education, care of the needy and maintaining law & order, but as the population of Heavitree grew, the Heavitree Urban District Council was formed in 1896, and took over most of the parish’s responsibilities.
Church Street 1909 showing the location of the Heavitree UDC offices
Among the projects it carried out before its short life was ended when Heavitree was annexed by Exeter City in 1913 were: the provision of Heavitree Pleasure Ground in 1906, and the widening of North Street in 1910.Scroll to top of page
Heavitree Pleasure Ground
One of the most treasured and frequented areas of Heavitree has to be its Pleasure Ground, often incorrectly referred to as Heavitree Park which is located nearby at the intersection of Butts Road and Fore Street.
At the start of the twentieth century, fields and orchards in the Heavitree area were being secured for housing at an alarming rate. Thus, in 1905 the Heavitree Urban District Council (HUDC) purchased four fields off Whipton Lane for the purpose of a Pleasure Ground, similar to those that had already opened in the Belmont and St Thomas areas of Exeter in 1886 and 1891 respectively.
|Site of Heavitree Pleasure Ground, 1904||Heavitree Pleasure Ground, 1936|
The Pleasure Ground was designed to have something for everyone: gardens and open spaces in which to relax and improve well-being, sports areas, and a play-area for children. It had been noted that youths often congregated on Fore Street, causing a nuisance with their antics and colourful language; the development would give them somewhere to go, and something to do.
F.W. Meyer **, an employee of Veitch and Sons, well-established and respected horticulturists in the area, was tasked with planning and ornamental planting of the Pleasure Ground. A path was laid around the site, drainage improved, and trees and shrubs from around the world were planted.
The Heavitree Pleasure Ground was opened on 1st May 1906 by Colonel Vaughan (Chairman of the HUDC), attended by J.W.W. Matthew (Clerk) and F.E. Simpson (Surveyor). A plaque commemorating this can be seen in the wall next to the main entrance in Whipton Lane.
Heavitree Pleasure Ground - opening memorial stone
There was still much to be done. Development continued after this date until the annexation of Heavitree into Exeter in 1913, and beyond.
In 1906, a further area was acquired, and two fields were let for mowing and sheep grazing.
Also in 1906, a tennis court, bowling green, and children’s play-area near the current basketball court, were added, the children having been warned that they must behave properly. To begin with, only Heavitree parishioners were allowed to use the tennis court and bowling green; over time others were allowed to use the facilities but had to pay at a higher rate.
In 1907, Robert James was appointed ground keeper and gardener, at a rate of 24/- a week, and “that he be provided with a cap”. Mr James was needed as several boys had been brought before the Committee and fined for causing damage to the grounds. There was swearing during football matches, and help was needed on Sundays when behaviour was especially poor – broken bottles and damage to plants were noted.
In 1908, Heavitree Cricket Club requested a portion of land for cricket practice.
Other Improvements over the next five years: Entrance gates were provided; ladies and children’s toilets were built; additional trees and shrubs were planted, including in 1911, the King George V coronation oak, which survived until 2016 before being severely lopped / desecrated due to disease; seats were provided around the swings; see-saws provided in the playground; a plant nursery established.
Heavitree Pleasure Ground, opened 1st May 1906
Over the years, features have been added (new play-area, paddling pools, BMX/skateboard ramps, basketball court), others have come and gone (a pavilion, Heavitree United Football Club using the Ground for matches), some in the original plans by F.W. Meyer never came to fruition (e.g. a large, formal, circular bed in the centre of the Ground with a statue in the midst, a small lake near the bowling green), but the Pleasure Ground remains as popular now as when it was first opened.
Parklife Heavitree was established in 2010 to build and nurture the local community, based around the Pleasure Ground. They hold regular events: an annual Fun-Day, weekly keep fit and running groups, and monthly seasonal events (e.g. Easter egg hunt, Carol singing). They have a refreshment van which is used each week. They also have plans to build a community hub and café near to the bowling green.
There seem to be very few older photographs of the Pleasure Ground. If you have or know of any, please let us know.
Heavitree Pleasure Ground - centenary memorial
Did You Know?
A small part of the current Pleasure Ground used to be a brickworks.
This area - bounded by Roseland Crescent, Hamlin Lane & Chard Road - was only added to the Pleasure Ground after World War II.
** Frederick W. Meyer was born in Germany in 1853, and died in 1906 just a few months after the Pleasure Ground was opened. The 1891 census lists him as living at 15 Elmside. He is buried in the Higher Cemetery. At the suggestion of David Morrish, one of the HLHS founding members, retirement apartments in Butts Road that replaced the old Red Cross H.Q. were named Meyer Court in memory of him.
Retailing in Heavitree
From the time that retail really took off in the nineteenth century, right through until the latter part of the twentieth century, small, family-run shops could be found on many residential streets, in addition to shops on the main high streets. Smaller shops were initially run from people's front-rooms, but later, purpose-built premises were incorporated into residential developments, many at street junctions or at the corner of a road where they could catch the trade from both streets; they were collectively known as corner shops. In some locations, shops would be grouped together to form a parade. By far the largest proportion of corner shops sold groceries or provisions, and often passed down through several generations of the same family.
With only family members and may be a couple of workers to run the shop, rather than several shifts that we see today, opening hours were limited: most shops would close for an hour at lunchtime, would always be closed on Sunday, often on a Saturday afternoon, and on another weekday afternoon (usually a Wednesday or Thursday); this gave a 5 day working week spread over 6 days for workers; the owner would have accounts and orders to process out the back or after closing. Such hours were more than sufficient: customers worked around the opening hours - shops were there to provide a basic but adequate service for local customers, rather than trying to compete with others shops by attracting customers from a wider area or by staying open over longer hours.
Shopping in the early days was done as a necessity rather than the pastime that it has become today. Visits to larger stores, only to be found in the city centre, would take place no more than a couple of times a month at the very most, as there was little disposable income for every-day folk. Clothing was usually home-made, and was frequently handed down to younger siblings and friends, or could be bought cheaply at jumble sales (car-boot sales, charity shops and door-to-door collections have only been around since the 1990s). Household items would have been very basic and sparce by today's standards.
Before the refrigerator was invented and was cheap enough for everyone to afford, cool storage cupboards known as larders, were used to store food. As most food had a very limited shelf-life, it was necessary to buy in small amounts and to visit the grocery shop on a daily basis or at least several times a week. Customers would be served at the counter - goods were weighed, sliced and parcelled-up by the proprioter.
World War II might be regarded as the hey-day of the local shop. Rationing was introduced due to severe shortages - everyone was allocated to their local corner shop, meaning that they could only buy goods at this particular shop; the shop on the other hand would have a guarenteed and loyal set of customers. Most items were in very short supply, giving rise to the phrases "Dig for Victory" and "Make Do and Mend". Luxuries, that had hitherto been shipped in, were not seen in Britain for years - locally grown substitutes would be used instead, for example, parsnips mixed with banana-flavoured essence were eaten in the absence of real bananas. Those fortunate enough to have a garden or allotment did their bit for the war-effort by growing their own fruit and vegetables, and sharing surplus with neighbours and friends; parks and open spaces were converted into allotments. Home-grown items were very seasonably-orientated, yields varying greatly from one year to another with the weather conditions. Most items were only available for a few weeks each year, but could be blanched or par-boiled then stored in brine for eating as required out of season. Rationing continued for several years after the war for certain items as the country gradually return to normality.
After the war, in practically all areas of life there was a desire to leave the old behind, to look forward and never turn back, to embrace new radical ideas. Retail was no different - by the late 1950s self-service stores (later known as supermarkets) began to open. The convenience of being able to buy everything in a single store, and more and more people being able to afford to own a fridge and a car, gave way to the idea of a 'weekly food shop'. Once loyal customers of the corner shop slowly began to defect; the decline of the local shop had begun. Many survived for a number of decades longer, until their owners retired and younger folk had no desire to take them on.
Today even the larger high-street stores struggle to survive as rents rise, tastes change more rapidly and become more diverse, and on-line shopping becomes more prevalent. However, there is some evidence of late to suggest that there is something of a revolt against larger stores in favour of smaller shops once again, as climate-change and excessive use of packaging, especially (single-use) plastic, has become an important issue for many people; in addition, some supermarkets tempt shoppers with offers that penalise suppliers rather than the shop bearing the cost. Home delivery by larger stores and independent tradesman, that was once common-place but largely died out as people chose to tackle the 'weekly food shop' by themselves, is taking off again as people juggle their time between work and leisure. Sadly, it's unlikely that the corner shop will ever be as ubiquitous as it was in days gone by.
Retailing in Fore Street
As the main street in Heavitree, Fore Street has for many years been lined with a good number of shops and establishments providing a range of services to residents and passers-by.
In common with the local corner shops, in the early years these outlets would have been small, family-run affairs that often saw little change for years. More recently, a number of the small businesses have been taken over by larger franchises seen in many towns and cities. The pace of change has also quickened meaning that shops especially often stay for a much shorter period of time.
Retailing in Fore Street
[transcribed from a booklet published by the Society in 1999 & augmented]
It is interesting to note how the type of outlet has changed over the years. Modern Fore Street, although still relatively thriving, is not perhaps what it once was, now dominated by charity shops and cafes / restaurants rather than shops selling provisions or household items.
When Heavitree was a separate urban area from Exeter, Fore Street would have been the main shopping street; sadly now it is seen by many merely as a means to reach the main shopping area - Exeter city centre - with large numbers simply driving through.
|Fore Street, Heavitree at various times throughout the twentieth century|
Lost Corner Shops of Heavitree
Heavitree holds the 'ghosts' of many lost corner shops. Some live on only in the memories of people who used to work or shop there; others still reveal clues that they were once shops, be it in the shape of a window, or an old advertisement on the side of the building; many have been converted into houses, flats, or offices.
We've gathered together some examples, and some people's memories of shops that have disappeared. This is not a comprehensive list and may include errors. Do you remember shopping in any of these shops, or know of others? Please let us know and we'll update the list.
|Street||Shop||Additional Information / Memories|
|Baker Street||Grocers||Number 1. Run by a Jewish lady and her husband.|
|Barrack Road||Dykes grocers||Number 1.|
|Bonnington Grove||Grocers||On the corner of Goldsmith Street. Called Mizens in the 50s and 60s. Believe it became H A & M A Jones grocery.|
|Chard Road||Tellings grocers||On the left hand corner of Chard Road and Nicholas Avenue. 'J.P. Telling did some super magic tricks, and apparently had half a thumb missing. He also had a hobby of breeding exotic fish. As a kid I could only ever afford a basic goldfish from him, but they generally lived a long time.' Later known as Chard Road News.|
|Chard Road Post Office||On the right hand corner of Chard Road and Nicholas Road, opposite Tellings.|
|Chards sweet shop||On the corner of Whipton Lane. At various times run by Col. Himbury, Philps, Bissex. Also sold fireworks. At one time had a small library you could borrow books from. Now Quickprint.|
|Dawsons grocers||To the right of Chards. Existed until early 2000s, when Quickprint expanded from neighbouring premises.|
|East Wonford Hill||Fitzroys grocers||On the right hand corner of Victor Lane. 'The little shop with the big stock'. Now a hairdressers.|
|Chemist||On the left hand corner of Victor Street. Now a reptile shop.|
|First Avenue||Butchers||Number 1|
|Grocers||Number 23. On the left hand corner of Second Avenue.|
|Homefield Road||Hodgsons shoe repairs||Number 1 (Brenda Villas). 'He used to sit in the window of the shop with his assistant, next up to Thornes’ Ironmongers. When he spoke to us young boys he always had a mouthful of tacks that he took out one at a time to nail in the shoes. He also had a cigarette in his mouth at the same time.'|
|Dairy||Number 5. Still there in late 1950s. Since replaced with more modern housing.|
|Castles||Number 10. Became Fortes chip shop. Open until around 1970. One lady recalls 'Used to get six penny-worth of chips and gribbles after Guides.'|
|Bakers||Short-lived, but 'the lady made the best doughnuts.'|
|Ladysmith Road||Chambers grocers||Number 1A. Near the corner of St Marks Avenue. Closed 2013.|
|Post Office & newsagent||On the left hand corner of Lower Avenue. Closed 2015.|
|Yandells sweet shop||Diagonally opposite the post office, on the left hand corner of Hanover Road.|
|Marks & Co.||Opposite the post office, on the right hand corner of Hanover Road. Electrical engineers. Closed 2012.|
|Lower Avenue||Joinery workplace||Behind Ladysmith Road post office. Closed at the same time as the Post Office in 2015.|
|Midway Terrace||Sutton dairy/grocer/greengrocer||Mr Sutton had a milk round.|
|Newcombe Terrace||Newcombe Dairy||Sold ice-lollies in the 1970s. On right hand corner of Newcombe Street, where the entrance was. See also 'Heavitree Recollected'.|
|Shop||On left hand corner of Newcombe Street, where the entrance was. Opposite the dairy.|
|Normandy Road||Leylands Paints||Sold wallpaper and paint for some years. Originally a Drill Hall; the Home Guard used it during the war. Sold in the 1980s and converted into flats.|
|North Street||Moores pork butcher||Sold 'the best pies and pasties.'|
|Handyman||Opposite The Windsor Castle PH (itself closed 30/04/2018 for conversion to flats). 'I remember taking mowers, scissors and other tools to be sharpened up the little alley opposite the Windsor Castle. The old chap always used to do magic with coins for my kids. Lovely man.'|
|Oakfield Street||Barbers' shop||Run from the front room. The owner also ran a newspaper delivery service.|
|Park Place||Park Place Stores||Grocer + Off License, run by Mrs Stuckey.|
|Park Road||Stamps grocers||Number 25. On the left hand corner of Jubilee Road. 'They would deliver for you; I used to see people sat on a chair while they put the groceries in their bag for them. They did boxes of broken biscuits as well. Anything loose was wrapped in brown paper.'|
|Regent Square||Shop||Number 62. At the bottom of the left side of the square. Became the only double-fronted house in the Square. The numbering of the premises is somewhat out of synch with the rest of the square - number 61 is at the top right of the Square!|
|Roseland Crescent||The Candy Shop||South Lawn Terrace end. Later moved to South Lawn Terrace and became Robinson's News. 'Rainbow sherbet in cone-shaped bag for 1d; fruit salads were 4 for 1d on way to school.'|
|Thackers||After this it was the Roseland Dairy, then Roseland Stores, selling groceries / greengrocery. Closed 1982. 'I used to deliver customers' grocery orders on Saturday mornings for 3/6 + tips. (1950-1953).' ' My mum used to get her shopping there, it took all afternoon!'|
|Magnet Stores||Opposite the other shops and turning into Roseland Avenue. Sold groceries, fruit and veg in the early 1960s.|
|Salters Road||A fish and chip shop + a grocers||Built in the 1930s at the junction with Peryam Crescent. It was initially two shops owned by the Pike family. The Co-op took over and converted the chip shop into a butchers, which they later closed when the two shops merged, and counter-service was replaced by self-service.|
|Wickhams paper shop||Opposite the grocers.|
|Chemist||Run by Mr Coneybeare, who apparently used to make his own tinctures on the premises. Opposite the grocers.|
|Tom the butchers||Opposite an orchard. 'I remember PC Gumm catching me scrumping in there and took me back home to Peryam Crescent. God I got a hiding!!!'|
|Dykes general store||Number 51. On the corner of Lethbridge Road. Previously Tootell's shop. 'I was remembering Tootells shop, when we were kids we always called it Tootell's Hill. Used to go there a lot, can remember being fascinated when the lady used to make 'cones' from paper for our sweets, feeling rich if I had a penny-worth instead of a farthing or ha'penny.'|
|Handyman store||Opposite Dykes.|
|Sivell Place||P Gupa||A chap who sold cheap car tyres.|
|Panel Beater Spray Workshop||Next door to P Gupa. Run by Steve Norman Plum.|
|South Lawn Terrace||Robinson's News||Was previously a video shop, Shauls bakery, hairdressers and gym.|
|Stuart Road||Birds grocers||Number 1. South Lawn Terrace end. Children used to return Corona bottles to top-up their pocket money.|
|Ropers||Number 53. First on the right coming in from Hanover Road.|
|Warwick Road||Courtney and Son butchers|
Heavitree United Reformed Church
Originally known as Heavitree Congregational Church, a small mission chapel was built on the present site in 1885, and enlarged to its present size in 1903. This required the acquisition and demolition of Homefield House which once stood on the corner of what is now Homefield Road.
1889 map showing the Mission Chapel prior to extension,
Prospect Villas to the left, and Homefield House to the right
During World War II the church basement was used as an air-raid shelter but was badly damaged in 1942 by enemy bombing which also destroyed the adjoining Prospect Villas that once stood in Fore Street west of the church.
Heavitree Congregational Church 1907, with Prospect Villas to the left, and shops in what is now Homefield Road visible above the railings of Homefield Place on the right.
In 1971 the Congregational and Presbyterian churches merged to form the United Reformed Church.
The church is renowned for its pithy and humorous notices including one in the 1920s politely asking motorists to be as quiet as possible on Sundays.Scroll to top of page
St. Michael's Church Of England Primary Academy
The first recorded school in Heavitree was run by the parish church in a building originally built as a parish hall in the 16th century; it stood on the site of what is now the Co-operative store in Fore Street.
Heavitree Parochial School - original building erected in 1517
(picture by permission of the University of Exeter)
On 29th September 1871 a new school, initially for boys only, was opened on the present site in South Lawn Terrace.
In 1875 a girls school was opened next to the boys school, but, as was the norm for many years in a majority of schools, the sexes were segregated.
In 1937 the two schools were modernised and remodelled into a single building and named Heavitree Mixed and Infants School.
1889 map showing the site of Heavitree School
Over the years the school has been renamed and restructured a number of times:
- 1975: the school became Heavitree First + Middle School.
- 1997: it was renamed St Michael's Church of England First + Middle School, marking the school's close and continuing links with Heavitree's parish church over the centuries.
- 2006: as part of a reorganisation of the Exeter school structure, the school was further renamed St Michael's Church of England Primary School and was rebuilt to bring it up to 21st century standards.
- 2013: the school became a self-governing academy and is now named St Michael's Church of England Primary Academy.
The Origin Of The Name 'Ladysmith'
In 1812 following the siege of the Spanish city of Badajos, a young infantry captain, Harry Smith, met and married the beautiful fourteen year-old Spanish noblewoman Juana Maria de los Dolores de Leon.
After a long military career he became Sir Harry Smith, and while he was Governor of Cape Town the town of Ladysmith was named in honour of his wife, Lady Smith.
|Lt. General Sir Harry Smith, 1788-1860||Juana Maria de los Dolores de Leon|
In the winter of 1899/1900 during the Boer War, the British garrison at Ladysmith was besieged for several months by a large Boer army. When it was finally relieved the British public celebrated for several days and many places, including Heavitree, named streets after the scene of a British triumph. A few months later Pretoria was the scene of another British victory.
The Boer War, 1899-1902
There are currently two schools in Pretoria Road, Heavitree - Ladysmith Infants and Ladysmith Junior. The original school catering for ages 5-12, built on the current Infants School site, was named Heavitree Council School. It opened in February 1908.
The school subsequently adopted the name of the road on which it stood apparently because local people had been calling it Ladysmith School for some years.
Colonel Vaughan (chairman of the Heavitree Urban District Council) officiates
at the flag unfurling ceremony at Heavitree Council Schools, 1908
Due to the school leaving-age being raised in 1921 from 12 to 14, and the increase in Heavitree's population as further housing was built, it became clear that additional accommodation was required, and in 1936 the foundation stone of what is now the Junior School was laid.
This second building, on the opposite side of Pretoria road, was built to Secondary Modern standards, and was able to accommodate additional pupils when the school leaving-age was raised again in 1948 to 15.
In 1974, following further education reforms raising the leaving-age to 16, Ladysmith Secondary Modern School merged with St James School for girls, Beacon Heath, Exeter. The original Council School became Ladysmith First School and the 1936 building became the Middle School.
|1936 building||2017 replacement|
In 2006, as part of a reorganisation of the school structure in Exeter, the First School was renamed to an Infant School and the Middle School to a Junior School.
2017 saw the demolition of the 1936 buildings to be replaced by new buildings further to the north on the same site. The original 1908 buildings remain, supplimented by additional out-buildings added at various times.Scroll to top of page
Brewing In Heavitree
Brewing of ale in Heavitree by local farmers, land-owners and the church had almost certainly been carried out for many centuries before commercial brewing was first recorded in 1790. This was done by John Wolland, a Heavitree farmer, land-owner and maltster. His brewery was originally on the south side of Church Street before moving to the north side, now the site of The Maltings. John Wolland’s business eventually became The Heavitree Brewery PLC, which still exists. Brewing in Heavitree itself ceased in 1970.
1889 map showing the location of Heavitree Brewery
Malting was also carried out at the Horse & Jockey Inn, the Ship Inn, and another brewery in Church Street from 1832 to 1857. The Heavitree Brewery faced more serious competition from the Windsor Brewery which operated from premises at the rear of Homefield Place until it was bought out by the Heavitree Brewery in 1899.
1873 advertisement for Baker & Son,
later to become The Heavitree Brewery PLC
Heavitree United Football Club
Founded in 1885, Heavitree United Football Club is one of the oldest amateur football clubs in Devon. It was originally a church team and in the early years matches were played on a pitch where the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Heavitree now stands.
After World War II the club returned to a pitch in Heavitree Pleasure Ground, sometimes playing in front of a crowd of several thousand people.
In the early 1950s the club moved to its present ground at Wingfield Park.
St Michael's Church football team, 1900
The opening of the barracks in 1804 was part of the government’s reluctant response to widespread criticism of the poor standard of soldiers’ accommodation. Even these barracks lacked accommodation for married soldiers – families being separated from other soldiers by a blanket hanging across the room.
The barracks were originally simply called Artillery Barracks to distinguish them from the Cavalry Barracks (Higher Barracks). In 1861 they were renamed Topsham Barracks, and in 1964 the present name was adopted. The wyvern is the traditional dragon of Wessex.
Front of Topsham Barracks
From 1804 to 1815 the barracks housed a number of different Royal Artillery companies. From 1816 to 1867 they were occupied by various cavalry regiments. Infantry units occupied the barracks from 1867 to 1871, and then Artillery regiments returned until it became a training depot in 1944.
The barracks had also been the depot of the Devonshire Regiment since before the First World War. They ceased being a base for active regiments in 1974.
Royal Artillery, Topsham Barracks
Heavitree In The Second World War
Air Raids on Heavitree
Exeter didn't suffer in World War II to the same degree as some of the larger cities such as London, Coventry and Liverpool.
The first bomb to cause any damage in Heavitree crashed through the roof of 48 Normandy Road on 6 September 1940, but didn't explode. However, it was still sufficient to cause the front of the house to collapse into the street. Fortunately no one was killed.
Map showing bombs dropped on Heavitree in the Second World War
There were more air-raids during 1940 and 1941 but nothing as serious as the bombs and incendiaries that rained down on Heavitree on just three nights in April + May 1942. During this period Hitler's bombers tried their best to destroy 'The Jewel of the West' as part of The Baedeker Raids, a series of retaliatory raids on historic English cities following allied bombing of the German city of Lübeck in March 1942.
Over 250 people, including 50 Heavitree residents, lost their lives during these raids. Many hundreds more were injured or traumatised, and there was extensive damage to buildings.Scroll to top of page
When the Germans surrendered in May 1945 finally bringing an end to the Second World War, rapturous relief and joy erupted throughout the country. Despite food shortages and rationing, impromptu street parties were held just about everywhere, with celebrations continuing long into the night.
|Chard Road||Hoker Road||Sivell Place|
Although street parties continue to take place every so often, usually for events associated with the monarchy, there has never been such cause for celebration as in 1945.Scroll to top of page
Famous Heavitree Residents
Richard Hooker was born in Heavitree in the Spring of 1554. Along with Sir Walter Raleigh, he is often referred to as being one of the two most influential men to have been born in Devon.
Although he is the lesser known of the two, he was instrumental in the development of Anglicanism, in ensuring that it took a middle road between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. His defence of every aspect of Anglican worship was acknowledged by Elizabeth I.
A statue of Richard can still be seen in the grounds of Exeter Cathedral, and a special prayer is said each year on the anniversary of his death.
Statue of Richard Hooker on Cathedral Green, Exeter - Dec 2013
Dame Irene Vanbrugh
Dame Irene Vanbrugh was a famous actress and film star who was born in the vicarage at Heavitree on 2nd December 1872.
She made her debut on the West End stage whilst still in her teens, working almost continually until her death in 1949. She starred in the first run of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Ernest, also appearing many times on New York's Broadway.
Dame Irene had leading roles in a number of major films before the Second World War, sharing the billing with the likes of Douglas Fairbanks and Marlene Dietrich. She was one of the driving forces behind the formation of The Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts.
Her sister, Violet, lived in Heavitree during her early years and was also a very successful actress.
Dame Irene Vanbrugh
Clifford Bastin was born in New North Road, Exeter on 14th March 1912 and attended Heavitree Council School (now Ladysmith Infant School).
His footballing skills were recognised at an early age playing for England's schoolboys team and making his debut for Exeter when he was 16. His potential was brought to the attention of Herbert Chapman, the manager who was destined to turn Arsenal football club into one of the leading clubs in the world.
Clifford 'boy' Bastin - Exeter, Arsenal & England footballer
John Sampson was born at South Tawton in 1836, but lived at Spreyton near Bow as a child. On leaving education, Sampson initially worked for the Great Western Railway at Churston, South Devon, before moving to Exeter and setting up in business. Over time he became an eminent businessman owning a tin mine, a brewery + The Plymouth & Stonehouse Gas Company.
Sampson built a kiln on Polsloe Road on land attached to the City Workhouse, before transferring his business in around 1870 to a recently purchased piece of land between Polsloe Road & Ladysmith Road. Part of this land was used for his brickworks, which became his chief source of income at a time when much house building was taking place in the area. He employed a large work-force of men & boys, and amassed a considerable fortune.
Sampson acquired a good deal of property - including that in Heavitree, Wonford, Fore Street & St Thomas - reportedly becoming one of the richest men in Exeter area at the time. In 1897, he was listed as: 'John Sampson: brick & tile manufacturer, proprietor of patent vans for removing furniture, agent for London cement, glazed pipes & the Dorset Lime Company’.
Sampson lived in the Polsloe Road area of Heavitree. In 1871, he lived at ‘Floriston Villas’, South Avenue, but later moved to in a 14-room villa residence named 'Melrose House', Polsloe Road, on the corner of the lane leading to his brickworks. This lane became known as Sampson’s Lane, a name which it retains to this day; it now acts as a thoroughfare from Polsloe Road to Pretoria Road. To the north of 'Melrose House' was a plot of pasture land (used for housing in the 1960s) and four 14-room villas that Sampson sold to Mr Price, Mrs Morgan, Mr Quick and a Mr Hussan respectively.
Sampson's 14-room villa residence, 'Melrose House' (left),
at the entrance to Sampson's Lane, 2016
Sampson married twice. His first wife, Jane, died in 1893. He had 2 children by her – both sons. They died at an early age after reaching manhood. Understandably, their death was a terrible blow to Sampson. He married again in 1906; his second wife out-lived him.
Despite his wealth, Sampson had an affinity for poorer folk & filled many public offices:
- He was on the St Thomas Board of Guardians and overseer to the poor.
- A Heavitree parishioner from 1864, he displayed an active interest in Church matters.
- He was a church-warden of Heavitree Parish Church between 1881 and 1904.
- He was, for many years, a member of Heavitree Parish Council.
- He was member of the Heavitree Urban District Council, and as an ardent Conservative was a prominent figure at Conservative Meetings, exhibiting a keen interest in the City contest
(Exeter’s proposal for Heavitree subsummation – a propostion Heavitree residents resisted for many years).
- He was a generous supporter of the West of England Institution for the Deaf & Dumb,
being on the House Committee at the time of his death.
- A regular follower of the East Devon Hounds.
- A prominent Freemason.
|Maps showing Manor Cottages off Fore Street||Frontage|
|Early 1950s||Early 1960s||Early 1970s||2016|
In his life-time, Sampson gave a number gifts to Heavitree:
- A piece of ground enabling a road to be built connecting Ladysmith Road to Goldsmith Street, enabling a through-route between old and new Heavitree.
- Land for the building of Heavitree Council School in Ladysmith Road.
- Four houses named ‘Manor Cottages’, to be used as almshouses in Heavitree.
[Maps show these were to the rear of the present-day 120 / 120a Fore Street. The almshouses were demolished in the 1960s, along with the original 120 Fore Street (42 Fore Street prior to re-numbering in the mid to late 1950s)].
[The 1950s & 1960s was a period of much change in Fore Street, e.g. demolition of Ellis’ Place, Shrubbery Place & Gordon Place, and subsequent addition of car parks; relocation of toilets from under North Street to their current location next the Royal Oak; replacement of the North Street police call-box with a police sub-station next to the United Reformed Church; re-numbering of properties.]
A block of apartments, Manor Court, has subsequently been built further to the east in Fore Street.
- Two houses in Regent’s Square for the upkeep of the aforementioned almshouses.
|Announcement of John Sampson's death 19th Jan 1910|
Sampson died quite unexpectedly at 'Melrose House' aged 75 on the morning of 19th January 1910, after collapsing whilst readying himself for work. A servant called for relative and employee, Tom Shute, of ‘Discombe Villas’, 56 Polsloe Road, who in turn summoned local physician, Dr Wolfe, who ‘pronounced life extinct’. It is believed Sampson died due to a fatty degeneration of the heart.
In his will, Sampson:
- Bequeathed £200 to the vicar and church-wardens of Heavitree Parish Church, to be used for gifts to the poor, and a further £200 for the provision of a parish nurse.
- Left a legacy to install a stained-glass window and a clock in the tower of Heavitree Parish Church. The clock, given to the Church at Christmas 1910, can be found inside and above the west entrance of the Church. It's not known if the stained-glass window was ever installed.
|John Sampson memorial plaque & clock, Heavitree Parish Church|
Sampson's assets were sold by auction at The Half Moon Inn on 22nd September 1910:
- The brickworks + associated buildings and cottages.
- 13 acres of land for building.
- 'Melrose House' and 3 other dwellings named ‘Polsloe Villas’.
Auction map of Sampson's property, 22nd Sep 1910
There are no other records of the existence of the brickworks after its sale. The land was later utilised for the playing fields of Ladysmith Boys’ School built in the 1930s (Ladysmith Junior School following education reforms in the early 1970s).
Sampson's house, 'Melrose House' (40 Polsloe Road), still exists but is now named ‘Rockhaven’. The adjacent property, 38 Polsloe Road, was destroyed by a direct hit during enemy action of as part of the Baedeker Raids on 4th May 1942; it has since been rebuilt.
Express & Echo (19th Jan 1910), Exeter Memories, old-maps.co.uk, 1871 census, Mrs Ann Yorath
Heavitree's Global Footprints
As Europeans explored, and in many cases took over government of, many parts of the world, it became common for explorers and new land-owners to name topographical features and places after family names or places where they had grown up. Devon place-names can be found throughout the world; even small villages such as Heavitree are found in other places. Two examples are:-
Heavitree Gap - a pass which cuts through the MacDonnell Ranges near Alice Springs in the Northern Territories, Australia - was mentioned in a letter by Surveyor William W Mills to Sir Charles Todd, the Superintendent of Telegraph, on 12th December 1872. As a boy Mills lived at Polsloe Park and went to school in Heavitree. It is also claimed that he named Alice Springs after Alice Todd, the wife of Sir Charles Todd.
Heavitree Gap, Australia
Heavitree, Jamaica lies at an altitude of 756m (2480 feet) in a mountainous area near the middle of the island. It is in the county of Middlesex and the political constituency of North West Manchester. Its link with Heavitree, Devon is thanks to the Davy family. They lived at Mere Farm in the parish before moving to the Exe estuary in around 1765.
Maps showing location of Heavitree, Jamaica
Extracts From Old Newsletters:
'1066 and All That' (Feb 2001)
In our previous newsletter, clarification was requested for Heavitree's Domesday Book entry, in particular the reference to ploughing with a team of eight oxen.
The Domesday Book is not consistent in the manner of its recording; Heavitree's entry is very short on detail. It mentions only two carucates of land and two ploughs: one for Roger, who holds the manor, and one for the villain - the two serfs were probably ploughmen. That makes for a population of just four families in 1086: Roger's, the villain's and the two serfs' - surely there must have been more.
A carucate, like the hide elsewhere in the country, is a measure of cultivated land which a plough team could work in a year, and could be used to calculate tax. For most of the country, a carucate, or hide, would have been reckoned on 120 acres but in the southwestern counties (heavier soils?) it is more often reckoned at only 40 or 48 acres (Finn, 25).
How much bigger than its likely 96 acres of arable was the manor at this time? What about woodland (crucial for fuel and the grazing of pigs), orchards, pasture, sheep and cattle? How did this tiny manor, and its later church of St Michael, in the two centuries following Domesday Book, become the centre of such a large parish, stretching from Cowley Bridge in the north to the Clyst at Bishops Clyst in the south, including a total of ten churches and chapels (Orme, 121)?
The extent of Heavitree parish at the end of the 13th century (Orme, 1991)
As for the plough and its oxen team, it must be remembered that ploughing had been developed over thousands of years before 1086. The plough itself was a valuable and effective tool, with all the components we see on a modern plough: a coulter to cut the turf, an iron 'share' to break the ground, and a mouldboard for turning the furrow. Ploughshares were even sought as payment for rents (Finn, 57). The oxen (castrated bulls), were small beasts about the size of the Dexter breed, and the eight would constitute two teams of four.
Finn, RW, 1973 - Domesday Book; a Guide, London;
Orme, NI, 1991 - The Medieval Chapels of Heavitree, Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society No 49, 121-129
Extracts From Old Newsletters:
'Is Fore Street Heavitree a Roman Road?'
There has been much speculation and debate in the Society over the possibility of Fore Street Heavitree having a Roman origin but we may never be able to prove it. In reality, even if it began its life as a solidly-built Roman military road, nineteen centuries of continuous use, and its slope, would have removed all physical evidence. However, we can still investigate the possibility by association with the proven routes and the intelligent interpretation of the topography in the gaps. To this end the Society was pleased to welcome John Allan, Curator of Antiquities of the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, who has extensive knowledge of Exeter's history and archaeology of all periods, to address us on the subject of Roman roads. Indeed, such is John’s reputation as an authority on Devon's past that the audience on the evening of 20th March was swollen by many non-members eager to hear what he had to say. The following account of John Allan's talk is compiled from extensive notes taken by Hazel Harvey to whom I am much indebted.
The Military Way
Most importantly, Roman roads were constructed by the army, for the army. When the Second Augustan Legion built their fortress at Exeter in the 50s A.D., roads leading to it from the rest of Roman Britain, and in particular the contemporary Legionary fortress at Lincoln at the other end of the Foss Way, will have been laid out in predictable ways, with forts placed at intervals equivalent to a day's march. The Antonine Itinerary of the third century A.D. listed the mileage between important places such as posting stations and major towns. Included on the south coast route between Dorchester and Exeter, for example, is Moridunum, which may mean defensible place by the sea, and, although no hard evidence for a fort has yet been found, it is likely to have been close to present day Seaton. To the west of Exeter there is Nemetostatio and may be the fort known as North Tawton. Further west we have Tamaris, yet to be found, but must be a fort guarding the crossing of the river Tamar. It took until 1998 to find the Roman fort near Honiton on the Foss way; everyone knew it was there somewhere.
The Physical Evidence
With the aid of a so-called Urban Database, being compiled by John Bedford, which precisely locates and superimposes all known erotological evidence onto modern topographical maps, it is now much easier to see what was going on at any given period. The gates and many of the roads leading from the original Legionary fortress are known from excavations. An aerial photograph showing the very straight line of Topsham Road would have continued through Exeter's South Gate into the fort and out of the North Gate. Interestingly, the suspected route from the North Gate was never found during excavations in the area of the Iron Bridge. Instead, Peter Weddell and the late Chris Henderson found evidence for the road turning north and running up what is now Paul Street. An East Gate, near St Stephen's Church in the High Street, would have run in a straight line to join what is now Sidwell Street. The apparent wobble in the line of this road, from the later City Gate to Sidwell Street is thought by John Allan to be the result of recutting City defences during the Civil War. The road from the West Gate would have run to the Exe Bridge and beyond.
So far none of this helps the cause of Fore Street Heavitree except that during recent excavations in Princesshay, Roman road metalling was unexpectedly found running diagonally, due East from the Fort. This is still not quite in line with Fore Street Heavitree but does allow us to break the predictable 'dead-straight' grid mould.
Of the two Roman roads running to Exeter from the east - the Honiton-Exeter route as seen by John as an extension of the Foss Way, and the south coast road from Dorchester - John Allan agrees with Ivan Margary, still the best authority on the subject, that the best alignment for Fore Street Heavitree comes from the latter. The south coast route arrives at Clyst St Mary and the bridging of the Clyst, then follows a straight line section of the Topsham parish boundary (always a good indicator of pre-Norman land division) to Sandy Gate, then on to Quarry Lane and East Wonford Hill. The building of the railway, outer bypass and M5 motorway now make this route less obvious.
John Allan opened his talk into a discussion of the Foss Way from Honiton which is known with certainty as far as Rockbeare Straight. Margary describes a bendy route from Clyst Honiton closely following the low ground of the old A30 to join the South Coast road at Heavitree Bridge at the bottom of East Wonford Hill (Margary, 108). Fore Street Heavitree scores twice! However, if one takes a look at a modern map we see another potential route into Exeter over a ridge via Blackhorse Lane to Gipsy Hill and then Hollow Lane. From this point the line can be imagined running to join the Pinhoe Road close to Polsloe Bridge, then to Blackboy Road, Sidwell Street and Exeter's East Gate. Unfortunately no Roman road was discovered during the building of the M5 motorway.
There seems to be little doubt that Fore Street Heavitree had its origins as a Roman road and could have led to both the East Gate and the South Gate of Exeter, forking at Livery Dole, before running via both Magdalen Road and via Heavitree Road + Paris Street.
Margary, RD, 1955 - Roman Roads in Britain Vol. 1, London
The Hoare Family
The Hoare family lived at 27 Church Terrace, Heavitree for a number of years until around the start of the Second World War. They played a significant part in the development of the Express and Echo for over 70 years.
Sam Hoare (d. 1947), was the paper's first works manager/overseer, recruited from the Bideford Gazette by Sir James Owen when the Echo was launched in 1904. He remained in this post until his retirement in 1937.
Sam’s two sons, Marcus Cecil Bradfored Hoare (known generally as Cec) and Eric George Rounsfell Hoare (born in 1911 at 27 Church Terrace), both joined the paper as 15-year-old schoolboys and gave 50 years’ service before retirement.
Cecil became editor and Eric sports editor, retiring in 1968 and 1976 respectively.
Cecil was at one time chairman of the City Rowing Club. His war service included spells in the Home Guard, and as a war correspondent while he was in a reserved occupation and still editing the paper.
Eric, Sam & Cecil Hoare
Eric served in the 4th Devons in Gibraltar and with the King's African Rifles in Kenya.
Eric was a keen cricketer, playing pre-war for Heavitree CC, which was disbanded in September 1939, and later for St James' CC, both of which had grounds, along with Christchurch CC, at Wonford House, until the hospital expansion. St James' are now Topsham St James', whilst Christchurch folded.
Eric took over 800 wickets for Heavitree who were highly-successful in the 1930s. He combined his playing career with writing, under the pen-name ‘Willow’, for the Express and Echo.
Eric’s early sporting success came at Ladysmith School where he played football alongside Clifford Bastin. They played for Exeter and District Schools together with Ladysmith not surprisingly very successful and known as a "wonder team".
The family tradition at the Express and Echo continued when Eric's son, Philip, now living in Stamford, Lincolnshire, joined the paper in 1960. In his four years there, he covered amateur football in the city and has happy memories of watching Heavitree United's first team.
Philip’s Heavitree connections include attending Exeter School, and playing cricket for St James'. He holds Heavitree CC's last scorebook, photos and medals, as well as his father's war diaries which he has transcribed.
The following section contains a collection of snippets and memories sent to the Society by individuals wishing to share aspects of Heavitree's past, and will be expanded as time goes by.
Unless otherwise stated, images are courtesy of the person that contributed the relevent article.
These are 4 photos of me taken in the late 1960s outside Roseland Dairy which was at no.6 Newcombe Terrace, on the corner of Newcombe Street. The front of the house looked straight down Hamlin Lane towards Polsloe, the shop entrance itself was in Newcombe Street.
|Roseland Dairy, 6 Newcombe Terrace in the late 1960s|
My parents ran the dairy until about 1969. My mother used to deliver bottled milk around the nearby streets using a converted pram. Incidentally, here was another Roseland Dairy in later years located in Fore Street, Heavitree, but there is no connection.
My Grandmother lived in Beacon Lane and was the cleaner in the Heavitree United Reformed Church.
Cross Park Terrace
I thought the attached may be of interest for the land my house was eventually built on. The auction notification was obtained from the British Newspaper Archive.
|Auction advert 6th May 1885||1915|
Memories of Rosary House School
I was there from the age of five until I was eleven. I was extremely happy there and I found the nuns very kind despite the fact that my family were not Catholics.
The large entrance hall was in a Victorian tiled pattern of shades of terracotta, blue and white. In these days at Rosary House there was a class taken by Miss Beck to the left of the entrance hall, and to the right was the BIG room where assemblies, P.E., plays and other activities took place. Behind was the kitchen where Sister Camelia was in charge; to the left of this, under the stairs were the cloakrooms, toilet and back entrance. There was a student teacher in charge, but I can't remember her name.
Up the grand staircase, to the left was what I think must have been the nuns' quarters. I know Sister Superior's room was there. Dead ahead was a large statue of the Virgin Mary. To the left of this was a row of classrooms. Sister Sebastian's was the first in the row, she took the older children. Sister St John was in the middle, took the lower juniors, and at the front of the house was Sister St Alphie's infant class.
Each doorway had a place to dip one's finger in holy water and cross oneself (strange to a non-Catholic child). The classrooms had a picture of a 'stairway to heaven' where if you brought a penny (old money 1d) your paper image could rise a step upwards until eventually your 'paper child' reached heaven.
Sister Sebastian's class c. 1949:
L-R Standing: Elaine Cruchet, Jill Hayte, Rosemary Wall, Valerie Parker, Anne Collins, Sister Superior, Beryl Reid, Sister Sebastian, Beryl O'Shea, Unknown, Mary Hodges, Unknown, Monica ?, Unknown, Alisha Ramsdon.
Kneeling: Janet ?, Heather Roxburgh, Judith Bridle, Bridget Matthews, Anne Milne, Josephine ?, Hilary ?, Hazel Smith, Geraldine Roberts, Brenda Lewis, Janet ?, Jennifer Pepperel, Cynthia Kirk.
The unnamed girls to the right in the back row were a year older than Rosemary.
On various days we went to a service in the Sacred Heart Church. I can remember being taken back to the school feeling faint from the cold and being given the old fashioned 'SOL VALATILE' by Sister Camelia in her warm kitchen. Not a lot of heating available with wartime fuel rationing.
There were various places to play at the back of the house, but in the summer we had the joys of the field to the side of the house and behind the church. This was also used for fêtes. The nuns were excellent at craft-work and made lovely things from very little, as during wartime and for some time afterwards, everything was on ration.
Occasionally we went to Palace Gate School by bus from Heavitree to Exeter Centre for 1d (one old penny) return. This was to enable us to use their 'proper gym'. The only school outing I can remember was towards the end of my time there when we were taken to Bristol Zoo - see photo of myself with Julie Kirton. This shows our school summer uniform. Blue and white checked dress, navy blazer with school badge and a straw hat with band and badge on it. In winter, I think we had a navy tunic and white blouse and tie, and probably a jumper or a navy cardigan.
I particularly enjoyed Friday afternoons, it was reading and handicraft work. The reading books were graded, and you usually had a new book for the weekend (what an incentive to get on). We learned joined-up writing with old fashioned copy books, and multiplication tables by rote. The nuns were very dedicated and helped us 'get on' in many ways. Discipline was certainly there but not in a heavy-handed way. If only that were true today!! I later became a primary school teacher and corresponded with Sister Sebastian each Christmas until her death at a convent in Hudsen, America, a region from where she originated, I believe.
Rosemary with Julie Kirton at Bristol School outing
I enclose a photo of Sister Sebastian's class taken about 1949 in front of the school. I have been able to name most but apologise to anyone I've missed out or mis-named. It was taken 70 years ago! The other photo is of myself and Julie Kirton at Bristol School outing.
I am not on the internet but if anyone feels inclined, I would love to hear what happened to you after leaving Rosary House. Sally Robinson would be very happy to pass on any replies.
Rosemary Baxter, née Wall
My family lived in Regent Square from before 1900, at various numbers but always the front, until 1968 when my parents moved to Honiton Road.
Members of my paternal grandmother's family were instrumental in the building of Regents Park & Mont-le-Grand. One set of her great grandparents are buried in Higher Cemetery.
My grandfather was Arthur Robert Dooling who served in the Exeter City Police Force for 34 years. During World War II he was on duty at the top of North Street with the Police Box as his base. I remember taking his lunch up to him in a brief case; my mother would steam it so that he got it hot. He was also Chairman of Heavitree Conservative Club for many years.
My grandfather received a number of medals in his time: In addition to the three standard World War I medals, he was awarded the Defence medal & an Exeter Police Force long-service medal, of which very few were issued. I remember him cleaning them before he wore them for any official parades, etc.
|1937||Street party 1945|
My mother was one of the original committee members for the Heavitree Social Club, first based in the old school, which she attended as a child, and later at Wingfield House. She also helped with the catering at the Conservative Club, for their men only events as well as the dances.
I lived in Regent Square for the first 19 years of my life.
|Heavitree Carnival float|
Diana Horne is my cousin; she often visited from Eastleigh. Shirley Roberts, Jennifer Ford & Patricia Abbott were cousins.
I've identified the children in the images as far as I can remember, but you'll appreciate that after all this time I’m unable to recall everybody.
Jean Bauman, née Smith
|Away from Regent Square|
Here we recall the pivotal role of those who founded and ran the Society for many years from its earliest days.
Den Perrin, 1932 - 2017
Den Perrin, founder of the Heavitree Local History Society, and its first Secretary, passed away on 18th November 2017.
When Den retired from Devon County Council, his active mind turned to potential projects to keep him busy and stimulated. As a Heavitree resident, with a keen interest in history, Den started to explore the idea of a Local History Society.
This culminated on 12th August 1998 when Den, together with David Morrish, Norman Shiel and Martin Weiler, met 'to discuss the possibility of forming a Local History Society for Heavitree'.
The idea was quickly endorsed, and the Society inaugurated in October that year with Den as secretary. From the outset, he was very focussed on doing things rather than just talking about local history. Very speedily he organised for the fledgling Society to publish a guide to the Higher Cemetery, and moreover successfully approached Exeter City Council to pay for this.
Soon after, Den started an annual survey of the shops in Heavitree Fore Street, and researched what had been there previously right back until 1851, producing the results in a booklet. The survey is still continued by members and the changes are updated on our website.
Den also edited a fine publication naming all those from Heavitree who died in World War I - The Heavitree Roll of Honour; when it came to World War II commemorations, Den negotiated the closure of Whipton Lane and organised a street party to mark the 60th anniversary of the end of hostilities. Over 300 enjoyed entertainment, tea and a victory cake.
Den launched the Society newsletter in 2000 and continued documenting the history of the area. Other publications by him included histories of Heavitree Parish Church and Heavitree School. He also wrote a booklet for the Civic Society on all the plaques and public inscriptions around Exeter.
Den's biggest triumph was persuading the Royal Albert Memorial Museum to host an Exhibition on Heavitree's history - Heavitree 2002. This proved a great success and we still use some of the exhibition boards today.
He was very keen on reminding people that Heavitree used to be an independent borough until being annexed by Exeter in 1913. Eventually however he forgave the City, and indeed Den was the main driver behind the setting up of the Exeter Local History Society.
When he organised the first Heavitree Fore Street walk in 2000 an amazing 83 people turned up. Den had touched a nerve. He knew that people were interested in their community and its local history; knew it but crucially did something about it. Everyone with an interest in Heavitree will forever be grateful for Den's foresight and persistence.
The Society is still thriving today - nearly 20 years after Den formed it - a great legacy from the man we are honoured to remember as our founder and inspiration.Scroll to top of page
David Morrish, 1931 - 2018
David Morrish, co-founder of the Heavitree Local History Society, and its first Chairman, passed away on 14th February 2018.
A County and City Liberal Party Councillor for Heavitree for three decades, David was widely known as 'Mr Heavitree'.
He always had a passionate interest in the local history of Heavitree. In a Heavitree Liberal Newsletter of April 1968 David wrote an article about Heavitree in Australia. Here two of his great interests came together - geography and history.
The newsletter said that David 'makes a spare time hobby of recording aspects of Heavitree's history. As a geographer and Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, he has been busy tracking down Heavitree's Australian 'twin' '.
Given this level of interest in local history, and his 'can do' attitude, it is no surprise that David supported the formation of a Local History Society. Together with Den Perrin, David drew up plans, before hosting an initial meeting at his Birchy Barton Hill home on 12th August 1998.
David and Den's enthusiasm was infectious, and the Society was quickly inaugurated that October. Den was elected Secretary and David the Chairman, a post he held for 12 years.
David immediately got down to work on issues the Society could research and discuss. He wrote a paper for the Society's first meeting suggesting a number of themes. These included: Heavitree Urban District Council (1896-1913), schools, origins of street names, buildings in the conservation area, census returns, the cemetery, old newspaper reports, breweries and the churches.
Particularly popular were David's guided tours of the Fore Street area. The first one was held on Sunday 2nd July 2000; an amazing 83 people turned up. The Society newsletter reported 'Despite the numbers and the constant roar of traffic, David Morrish managed to both entertain and enlighten all those present'.
It was fitting that the Society's meeting on 6th March 2018 was packed to the rafters. Those present held a minute's silence to remember David, then took the opportunity to share personal memories.
Members stressed David's role in supporting and participating in the Heavitree Community Association.
Our current Secretary, Terry Bound, recalled David's role as a lecturer at St Luke's teacher training college. David led a party, including Terry, over the old bridge at Clyst St Mary to the banks of the river Axe. There they saw all the layers in the shingle cliff and David said "Gentleman this is geography being enacted before your very eyes". Terry said he will never forget those words.
Terry also paid tribute to David's role in researching the historic boundary of Heavitree Parish, and how Heavitree Urban District Council celebrated Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897 by erecting additional boundary stones and reviving the beating of the bounds ceremony, when some even rode round on horseback.Scroll to top of page